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Water refilling station Essay

1) Foreign Literature

Eureka Forbes launches mobile water purifier

NEW DELHI: Home appliances maker Eureka Forbes has launched mobile water purifier ‘Aqua guard-on-the -Go’, priced at Rs 595. Aqua guard-on-the-Go is in shape of a sipper loaded with miniaturized water purification technology and would be available across retail outlets and general stores, Eureka Forbes said in a statement. It would be available in four variants – black mystery, pink beauty, pearl white and racy blue, Eureka Forbes, a part of ShapoorjiPallonji Group, said. Commenting on the development, Marzin R Shroff, Eureka Forbes CEO – Direct Sales and Senior VP, Marketing, said the miniaturized water purification technology was rolled out after seven years of research. “Aqua guard-on-the-Go is perhaps the only water purifier in India which can enable affordability, adaptability and availability of safe drinking water for Indians.

It is an important milestone in the history of brand Aqua guard which will take our market leadership in India to the next level,” he added. The company said, the water purifier is powered by space nano technology, which has 100 core plus optimally charged active sites that attract and can remove 99.9 per cent harmful bacteria and virus. Water filled in sipper passes through a maze of nano sized positive charged media that traps negatively charged pathogens and other impurities to decontaminate drinking water, the company said. It would attract the travelers, school/college students, sports and fitness enthusiasts. Eureka Forbes, which had a turnover of Rs 1,776 core last year, has a customer base of 15 million with presence in 450 cities and towns in India and a globally across 35 countries.

In 1997, Solerex ventured into the water refilling stations business. Utilizing its expertise and supplier channels in reverse osmosis, water filtration, and purification systems, the Company was able to offer the market superior equipment at a relatively low cost. This, coupled with the strong name recall of the Crystal Clear brand, enabled Solerex to expand at a fast rate, building the 3rd most extensive water stations franchise store network in the country after only two years. By the year 1999, Solerex seeks the professional services of FRANCORP, a franchise development specialist. Also this year, popular Philippine TV and movie celebrity, Ms. Lorna Tolentino became the endorser and franchise holder of Crystal Clear Water Refilling Station (WRS). After three years in the business, Crystal Clear franchise network expanded to 150 stores.

By this year the Rabana Group of Indonesia acquired the Master Franchise of Crystal Clear WRS in Indonesia. In 2001, PT SOLEREX Rabana Indonesia opened its first water store under the Crystal Clear Trademark. After two years, the PALMAGRO Holdings of Malaysia obtained the Master Franchise of CC WRS for Singapore and Malaysia. By the year 2003, SWTI and Crystal Clear’s President, Mr. Jose Antonio Soler received the award as one of the Top Ten Entrepreneur of the Year by the Entrepreneur Magazine. Various commendations were given to mother franchisor, SOLEREX and Crystal Clear by several prestigious organizations. The National Consumers Affairs Foundation awarded SOLEREX for Most Outstanding Water Technology System while Most Outstanding Purified Drinking Water Brand for CC. Another citation was given to CC and Solerex from the Parangalang Bayan Foundation, Inc. and Gintong Sikap respectively.

Water Refill Stations – New Wave of the Future | Eliminate Plastic Water Bottles -Kelly Kline Burnett

Water refill stations are now available and appearing at locations across the United States. While some have gone so far as banning bottled water, many others have taken a softer approach and have offered filtered water, free at outside bottle filling stations. Together we will explore the many locations that are banning bottled water along with a handful of locations that are now offering the free, outside refill stations. From the promotional photos to the new photos of the products, this is an exciting new era for drinking water. These new initiatives have been aptly labeled the “new citizenship. It is the stewardship that is crafting these new waves throughout our culture. Some have taken to banning of bottled water. What is fascinating is not their actions but their entire marketing campaign.

These early adaptors have mapped for us clear action plans for us to embrace. So who were the first to embrace this new green technology? Bundanoon and Toronto were the first, London soon followed and now a progressive town called Concord near Boston, Massachusetts is taking a stand. There is a new citizenship emerging from Australia to Canada to Great Britain and now the United States. A concerned citizenship for both frugality and the environment. Campaigns, such as “Think Outside of the Bottle” and “Bundy on Tap” have targeted their citizens in an effort to educate them about the environment, tap water and the unnecessary expense of bottled water. Terms, such as the “new smokers'” to “unnecessary fad”, in combination with other educational training and now new drinking fountains – fountains that double as water “filling stations” have emerged. And many of these marketing campaigns are joined with municipal ordinances to ban bottled water.

Are “water refill stations” a wave of the future? Will there be a free “water refill stations “near you? “More than 100 municipalities in the United States have sought to reduce consumption of bottled water, but industry advocates said they are unaware of any other town that has taken such strong action (speaking of Toronto Canada) against the sale of bottled water. Last year, sales totaled $10.6 billion for 8.5 billion gallons nationwide, according to the Beverage Marketing Corp., a New York-based industry group.”5

From a tiny town in New South Wales, Australia called Bundanoon (a town of approximately 2,500 people and 100 miles south of Australia) and with support from Jon Dee, a Bundanoon resident, who actively promoted the city’s tap water with the marketing slogan of “Bundy on Tap” to Marketing campaigns to promote tap water from “Bundy on Tap” (a water campaign in Bundanoon Australian a town of 2,500, about 100 miles south of Sydney.) to “Think Outside the Bottle” are changing the way we view our water source and also how we live.

Not All Water Refilling Stations Are Created Equal – James Robbins According to the World Health Organization (WHO), about 3.4 million people die annually from water-related diseases. About a million people get sick with water-borne diseases yearly. And these are diarrhea cases alone. They don’t include other water-borne disease like amoebiasis, crypto-sporidiosis and cholera. Water refilling stations can help address the water contamination problem by ensuring access to clean water. What’s the Best Form of Purification: Micron Filtration, Distillation, or Reverse Osmosis? There are no “bad” water filtration or purification systems. Any filter or purification is better than none.

While there are good arguments on both sides of this debate, a consensus are forming that filtered water with healthy minerals may be the best. The human body was designed to run on water that exists naturally on our planet, water that contains traces of inorganic minerals such as calcium, magnesium and potassium. Distillation and the reverse osmosis system produce de-mineralized water with an acidic PH. Recent reports claim that prolonged consumption of distilled or de-mineralized water can lead to some form of mineral deficiency.

Water by nature has to balance itself. When the minerals are stripped from the water, it causes the PH to drop and water becomes acidic. It then seeks to balance itself by taking on minerals, primarily calcium. If we consume de-mineralized water, it will actually pull minerals from our body. With de-mineralized water (distilled or reverse osmosis), you get clean water. With micron-filtered water, you get clean water with minerals. The choice is yours.

UNK water refilling stations aim to reduce waste

Posted: Wednesday, June 25, 2014 12:05 pm | Updated: 8:07 am, Thu Jun 26, 2014. UNK Communications Kearney Hub KEARNEY — The University of Nebraska at Kearney soon will have 12 new water refilling stations — a move to encourage students to use fewer plastic water bottles. Water refilling stations allow students to refill water bottles. Each station features a sensor that turns on a stream of filtered water and a counter that tells students how many bottles have been saved through the use of the hydration station. UNK currently has three water refilling stations on campus.

“We definitely have reduced the amount of plastic bottles being used on campus,” Complex Director Jen Kacere said. “In the first six months, we saved almost 16,000 water bottles in Mantor Hall.” The student-driven project began in 2012 when a group of UNK students from the Residence Hall Association attended a conference at the University of Colorado Boulder. The students noticed water refilling stations in many locations on the Colorado campus. Inspired by the university’s efforts to reduce plastic bottle waste, the students came back to UNK on a mission to make the campus more sustainable. The Residence Hall Association immediately began collaborating with UNK Facilities.

“They don’t use any more energy than a regular water fountain,” Utilities Services Manager Toby Badura said. “Some of our water fountains had to be changed anyway because of ADA compliance.” In 2013, Centennial Towers West was undergoing renovations and needed handicap accessible water fountains. With the support of students, Residence Life decided to invest in UNK’s first water refilling station. Soon after, students living in Mantor Hall requested a water refilling station. That station was installed in January.

A third water refilling station was installed in the Boost Market in the Nebraskan Student Union. Students can buy a water bottle for $10 in the market and refill the bottle for free for the rest of the school year. The Boost Market is operated by the Nebraska Book Co. and Neebo, which is UNK’s textbook, apparel and accessories company. The first three water refilling stations — which cost $600 each — were paid for with student fees. The 12 new water stations are being paid for by student government, Residence Hall Association and Residential Life, and individual departments.

2) Local Literature

Water Stations in the Philippines

In the Philippines, bottled water has established a major foothold. In some places, piped-water systems are lacking; in others, people are uncertain about biological contaminants, disinfection by-products from the chlorination process, taste, and odor. Even in the capital Manila, only about three fourths of the population receives piped water from the municipal authority. Outside Manila far fewer people have access to clean water distribution. In both locations, these families must find alternate water sources if they are to avoid cholera epidemics and other health problems spawned by the foul, contaminated water available in their neighborhoods. A solution has appeared in the thousands of water refilling stations that now dot the Philippine landscape. These shops began as privately-run community sources, where consumers would bring containers and fill them for a per-gallon fee that is a small fraction of commercially bottled water’s cost.

Demand is such that most stores now offer home delivery for regular customers. Most shops produce between 3,000 and 12,000 liters of water per day. Typically, the supply comes from the pipes of municipal concessionaires. Entrepreneurs invest in treatment equipment and further purify their product before sale. Other shops are likely supplied by unauthorized or illegal deep well diggings. A proliferation of these private sources could have detrimental effects on groundwater reserves and subject them to contamination.

The government has accepted private water shops as a necessary weapon in the fight against waterborne disease and regulates their quality control practices and final product as much as possible. However, given the large number of shops, it is difficult to adequately monitor the entire industry. Though many in the Philippines benefit from the availability of water shops, the system does not address the long-term water delivery and sanitation infrastructure improvements necessary to provide reliable water to all.

The problem of water refilling stations

THE SOUTHERN BEAT By Rolly Espina | Updated November 10, 2007 – 12:00am I was in Iloilo last week when I stumbled into a story that had dangerous overtones. This was when Iloilo City Mayor Jerry Treñas declared that water refilling stations without sanitary permits would be closed. “They have to comply with the requirement. If they fail or refuse to secure sanitary permits we will close them,” was how Treñas conveyed his position. Later, however, I learned that engineer Josemarie Fayo, hospital environment occupational health inspector of the Department of Health, warned local government units to issue business permits to water stations only after they have secured operational permits from the health department. But the most disturbing thing that came out was his revelation that of the 504 water refilling stations in Western Visayas; only 154 have been accredited by the DOH. In short, 70 percent are operating sans the necessary health inspection.

DOH records show that of the 113 registered water refilling stations in Iloilo City, only 23 have secured the necessary DOH sanitary permits. The problem reached an alarming level because of the forthcoming Dinagyang Festival where thousands of visitors will converge in Iloilo City. City health officer Urminico Baronda pointed out that drinking bottled water does not guarantee safety. He added that most of these lack safety seals. In addition to the warning by City Mayor Treñas, tourism officer Benito Jimena said, “We should not wait for things to happen before agencies concerned look into the matter of water refilling stations peddling ‘unsafe’ bottled water.”

He also expressed apprehension on the possible effect on tourism if a single incident occurs that may leave the impression that in this part of the country drinking water is unsafe. Fayo, on the other hand, stressed the importance of local governments ensuring that water refilling stations submit a monthly water analysis to ensure the safety of their products. But the more important finding by Fayo is that on-site tests showed that some refilling stations use “improvised filtering machines.” He added that several have “damaged broken or rusty devices.”

Methods and Techniques of Water Stations in the Philippines
-Ralph Julius Bawalan
Water has become more and more a commodity than just a basic necessity. Even in the highly urbanized area of necessity. Metro Manila, water supply is inadequate with only 60% of the population being served by the Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System (MWSS) with a daily output of 4 million liters of water share by the population and industry. In the country, purification started with water treatment plants and public utilities like the National Waterworks and Sewerage Authority (NAWASA). This later became the MWSS for Metropolitan Manila and the Local Water Utilities Administration (LWUA) for the provinces. The MWSS was later privatized into the Maynilad Water and Manila Water. However it was probably only in the last 20 years when intensive campaigns were started to clean waste water and provide safer drinking water.

In 1980’s the deteriorating condition of water distribution lines also contributed to the popularity of water purifiers. Sophistication of water purification technology with the introduction of bottled water from different processes and sources including imports. The rise in bottled water use is not only a local development but is actually led by developed nations. The United States is the largest market for bottled water with annual consumption of 11.2 billion liters.

Here are the partial list of water refilling stations: Agua de Camarin Alaskan Spring Aqua Zone Aqua King Aqua Safe Ligtasna Crystal Clear Highland Mist Too Water CarePure and Fresh Aqua Cool Snow Valley Crystals Arvsons Agua MiaAqualeen Alex’s Wateria Microwater Crystal Geyser Aqua Supreme Water Club Purifil Island Stream Aquafil Agua Siempre Spring Fresh Bavesco Aqualite Mountain King Anchor Water Depot Danum Quench Aqua Sweet Aqua Grande Agua Ultima Jennssell Bugis Aqua Mary Spring Mist Mr. H2OForest Spring Alps Water 4 U Rain Mist Aqua Health Aqua Tree Cordon Spring Agua Vida Aqua Q Life Flo Nature’s Flow Grotto Spring Top Notch Water Mart Royal Star Aqua 2000Agua Wide Aqua Trust Aqua Road Life Line Heaven Pure Snow Drift Water bin Aqua best.

The sophistication of the water purification process, its packaging, branding, and marketing costs all made water expensive. Evian, an imported brand from France, cost almost four times as much as correspondingly; it has the source of minerals. Wilkins is the most expensive local brand probably because of its reputation as suited for infant formulation even without boiling.

The demand at the water refilling stations – water stores that sell purified water – is now increasing. The quality of purified water conforms to the national standards for drinking water and is even better than the quality of water produced by traditional water supply systems in terms of removed impurities. -(B.B. Magtibay) Over the years, as the demand for cleaner water becomes higher, the price of household water purifiers and bottled water has become prohibitive. Water refilling stations managed by private entrepreneurs offer a cheaper and more convenient solution to the public’s drinking water needs than bottled water or the use of household filters. At present, about 3,000 water refilling stations have proliferated nationwide. They sell purified water of comparable quality with bottled water at a lower price.

For example, the current price per gallon of refilled purified water in Metro Manila ranges from P 50 to P 120 per 5-gallon container or about P 2.50 to P 6.00 per liter while the bottled water is sold at P 12.00 to P 25.00 per liter. Household filters, on the other hand, cost P 5,000 to P 25,000 per unit ( 1 US $ = P 56 in 2004). In Metro Manila, most of the water refilling stations is connected to the pipes of two concessionaires: Maynilad Water Company or Manila Water Company for their source of raw water while in other areas they opt to use private deep wells. The “potable water” supplied by the providers is then further purified by utilizing a combination of water treatment equipment, such as sediment filters, carbon filters, water softeners, reverse osmosis membranes, ultra-violet lamps, and ozone generators.

Typical water refilling stations can produce 3,000 to 12,000 liters of purified water per day. In previous years, most of the people were bringing a container to a water refilling station to buy purified water. Nowadays, because of convenience on the part of the consumers, purified water in 5-gallon (22.7 liters) containers is delivered by the station directly to the people’s home. Aqua Sure, a water refilling station in Metro Manila, can deliver 5,500 gallons (25,000 liters) a day to its 8,000 household clients. Features of a water refilling station

Structurally, water refilling station can be operated with a minimum area of at least 20-25 square meters. It comprises the following sections: refilling and selling room, enclosed water purification room, container washing and sanitizing room, storage room for empty and refilled containers, source water storage facility, toilet and an office. To operate the water store, about five employees are needed. 1 – Manager – Overseas store operations at least 4 hours a day 1 – Accountant/Bookkeeper – Makes financial statement of business operations 1 – Administrative assistant – Logs and handles cash sales and purchases 1 – Front Liner – Accepts and refills containers of customers 1 – Technical Asst. – Maintains and runs the machine

1 – Driver/Delivery Man – Transport refilled containers to customer’s home The main process in a water refilling station is dictated by raw water quality. The typical steps are filtration (several stages), softening, and disinfection. The machines that could be installed for such processes are the following: Multi-media sediment filter – removes sediments such as rust, sand and particles that are invisible to the naked eye; employs a total of 5 filters. Ion exchanger – replaces hard minerals with soft minerals. Activated carbon filter – removes all organic chemicals, herbicide, pesticide, offensive odor and bad taste. Reverse osmosis membrane – the heart of the system and the most expensive unit; removes inorganic minerals, bacteria and viruses while retaining its oxygen content. Since the filter size is very small at less than 0.05 micrometer, the product water could have total dissolved solids (TDS) of less than 10 ppm. The filtration process rejects about 50 percent of raw water volume. Post-carbon filter – improves the taste of water.

Ultraviolet lamp – ensures that the water is free from disease-causing micro-organisms. Ozone generator – inhibits the growth of bacteria in the product tank and prolongs the shelf life of water. The efficiency of water purification system in removing impurities is high. The 10 water quality parameters measured by Magtibay (2001) showed an average of 80 percent efficiency.

Institutions and policies

The agencies directly involved in the establishment operation of water refilling stations are as follows: The Department of Health (DOH). DOH is the main agency responsible for protecting the health of the people. The Sanitation Code of the Philippines mandates DOH in protecting drinking water quality. Consequently, DOH issues implementing rules and regulations prescribing sanitary standards for water supply systems, including water refilling stations. The Center for Health Development (CHD) is the regional branch of DOH. Its main function is to provide technical assistance to local government units and to monitor DOH programed implementation which includes water quality and sanitation standards. For water refilling stations, CHD is mandated to issue initial and operational permits.

The Local Government Units (LGUs) are mandated by Presidential Decree (PD 856) to issue sanitary permit, sanitary clearance, health certificates, certificate of potability, drinking water site clearance and closure order (if necessary) and to conduct sanitary inspection of WRS. The Water Quality Association of the Philippines Inc. (WQAP) is an organization of private firms who are engaged in the manufacture, sale, and distribution of water refilling station equipment and supplies, as well as water treatment and purification equipment and technology for household, institutional, commercial and industrial applications.

About 85 percent of its 250 members operate water refilling stations. Association of Water Refilling Entrepreneurs (AWARE) concentrates on resolving business management issues of its members. Presidential Decree No. 856 (PD 856) or the Sanitation Code of the Philippines is the main law requiring all establishments to comply with existing sanitary standards to protect public health. Guidelines for operating a water refilling station are indicated in the Supplemental Implementing Rules and Regulations on Water Supply of PD 856 issued in 1999.

Water quality monitoring

Source water and product water are subject to regular monitoring by the local health office. The national standards for drinking water contain 54 parameters that must be complied with. Only DOH-accredited laboratories are allowed to conduct water testing and analysis. The frequency of monitoring is as follows: Bacteriological quality – at least monthly

Physical quality – at least every six (6) months
Chemical quality – at least every six (6) months
Biological quality – at least once a year
monitoring of radioactive contaminants shall be done only if there is significant input of radiation from the surrounding environment.


Water refilling stations can be a good source of safe drinking water in the Philippines. Purified water can meet the aesthetic standards easily detectable by the people in terms of taste, odor and color. The efficient water purification processes can make the quality of water superior to the traditional water systems. However, the risk of contamination is possible if the handling practices are not closely monitored.

Franchising Series: How to beat competition in the Water Refilling Business by FFE Life and Lifestyle Staff Competition is tight in the water refilling business in the Philippines since clean water is a basic need and the business itself is relatively easy to handle. Water refilling stations are more labor intensive especially with the delivery aspect. But managing it is easy thus making it appealing for a lot of first time entrepreneurs. That’s where most of the problem is: how to keep the business going. Fortunately, water is essential and you won’t run out of customers. But owners must be ahead of the competition to keep that business going smoothly. Here are tips to beat competition:

Market your outlet. Water refill stations don’t usually appear on TV and on print ads. This means that they are often spread by word of mouth. To spread word about your outlet, offer fliers in crowded areas in your neighborhood like markets and churches. You can also go door to door and leave your fliers on the mailbox. If more people know about your outlet, then there’s a greater chance to get more clients. Offer 24/7 service. We can never tell when our clients want their water delivered. Just to be sure, it would be a good idea to have two shifts to operate 24/7 to provide maximum customer service.

New Technology. Customers prefer their water supplier to be able to provide the latest technology in purifying and supplying them the cleanest water. Research on what is new in the market and see if you can afford to acquire and implement them.

Be friendly. Customers remember a good customer experience, and friendliness can easily be remembered by clients especially if you’re in a business like water refilling.  Respond to orders quickly. A fast delivery process lessens the hassle for customers, giving them better experience as a client. This may entail having more than one motorcycle and driver at a time, but good service definitely helps boost client relationships.

Offer water dispensers. Lending out hot and cold water dispensing machines can make you more appealing over other businesses. Water dispensers can also give added profit if you add a minimum charge for its use.

Offer quality service. Not only should you have friendly and smiling delivery boys, you should also have vigilante employees manning the refilling station that do not go lazy on keeping the standards of cleanliness. Regularly do a random check to see that not a single galloon delivered is contaminated or not properly cleaned.

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