Water Soluble Vitamins and Fat
The human body requires a large number of vitamins for a number of functions to keep the body alive and running properly. Vitamin D helps balancing hormones and Vitamin C helps with chemical reactions in the human body. Fat-soluble Vitamins and High Nutrient Sources
The fat-soluble vitamins consist of A, D, E, and K; they are found in a variety of foods.
Vitamin A| Celery, basil, chili pepper, mixed vegetables, carrots, pumpkin, sweet potato, beef liver, watermelon, and spinach| Vitamin D| Cod liver oil, salmon, tuna fish, sardines, whole egg, butter, milk, nonfat, decrease fat, and total vitamin D fortified, and butter| Vitamin E| Sunflower seeds, almonds, broccoli, cayenne pepper, asparagus, bell peppers, soy milk| Vitamin K| Turnips greens, spinach, asparagus, blueberries, green beans, broccoli, cucumbers, cauliflower, tomatoes| (Crandell, n.d)
Functions, Benefits, Risks, and Toxicity of Fat-soluble Vitamins
Vitamins| Functions| Benefits| Insufficiency Risk| Toxicity Risks| Vitamin A| * It helps in Common Visualization and reproduction, cellular growth, and immune system function.| * It assists the Immunity and healthy eyes. * It regulates and keeps healthy bones and teeth. * It aids skin and is well-known as necessary for the reproductive process for both males and females.| Blindness at Night, xerophthalmia, poor growth, dry skin, shrink immune system functioning| Nausea and vomiting, headaches, bone pain and fractures, hair loss, liver damage, interference with vitamin K absorption. | Vitamin D| * It absorbs calcium and phosphorus. * It maintains normal blood calcium.
* It is also known for the calcification of bone * It also maintains the immune system. | Cancer prevention, skin protection, metabolism booster, anti-inflammatory, and aids lower the risk of Alzheimer’s disease. | Rickets in Children, osteomalacia in adults: soft bones, depressed growth, and reduced immune system| Poor growth, calcium deposits in soft tissue| Vitamin E| Antioxidant| *It Supports with blood clotting.* It guarantees healthy bones, essential for the synthesis of the sphingo lipids.* It prevents calcium from forming in tissue.| Loss of muscular coordination, hemolysis of red blood cells resulting in anemia| Excessive bleeding as a result of interfering with vitamin K metabolism | Vitamin K| Production of active blood-clotting factors| | Excessive bleeding | Unknown | (Crandell, n.d)
High Nutrient Sources of Water-soluble Vitamins
Vitamins considered water-soluble include; Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B-6, Vitamin C. As the name suggests, water-soluble vitamins get dissolved within water and blood inside the human body.
Thiamin| Pork, wheat germ, enriched breads and cereal, brewer’s yeast| Riboflavin| Milk, yogurt, and other dairy products. Mushrooms, broccoli, asparagus, and spinach and other green leafy vegetables| Niacin| Chicken, tuna, peanuts, turkey roast, white rice, whole grain total cereal, raisin bran cereal| Vitamin B-6| All bran cereal, tuna, beef liver, potato, chicken, beef, pork, salmon, banana, pinto beans, sweet potato| Vitamin C| Peppers, citrus fruit, papaya, broccoli, cabbage, and berries| (Anderson & Young, 2008)
Roles, Benefits, Risks, Toxicity of Water-soluble Vitamins
Vitamins| Role| Benefits| Insufficiency Risks| Toxicity Risks| Thiamin(B-1)| * It assists to produce neurotransmitters. * It is division of coenzyme which is required for carbohydrate metabolism and the metabolism of certain amino acids.| * It maintains appetite, * It helps normal muscle function as well as the heart muscle.| Beriberi and Wernicke-korsakoff syndrome. Weakness, abnormal nervous system.| None| Riboflavin| * It is a part of coenzyme which is required for carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid, and lipid metabolism.|
* It supports healthy hair, skin, eyes, and liver. * It also assists to burn carbohydrates in order to produce glucose to fuel the body.| Inflammation of the mouth and tongue, eye disorder.| None| Niacin| * It is a part of coenzyme which is required for energy metabolism.| * It reduces cholesterol. * It aids and protects atherosclerosis and diabetes. * It also treats for osteoarthritis.| Diarrhea, dermatitis, dermentia, death.| Flushing of facial skin, itchy skin, nausea and vomiting, liver damage.| Vitamin B-6| * It is required for amino acid metabolism. * It is also concerned with neurotransmitter and hemoglobin.|
* It supports cell formation, carbohydrates, immunity, nerve system, health blood, and sulfur and methyl metabolism. * It also benefits from having anti-inflammatory.| Dermatitis, anemia, diarrhea, neural tube defects in embryos.| Nerve destruction.| Vitamin C| * Connective tissue synthesis and maintenance. * Antioxidant, synthesis or neurotransmitters and certain hormones. * Immune system. | * It supports with common colds, immunity, hypertension, antioxidants, blood vessels, and cataracts.| Poor wound healing, pinpoint hemorrhages, bleeding gums, bruises, depression.| Diarrhea and GI tract discomfort.| (Anderson & Young, 2008)
It has been proven that a diet rich with fruits, vegetables, and legumes may help reduce the potential risk of cancer, CVD, and many other serious chronic diseases.
Anderson, J. & Young, L. (2008) Water-Soluble Vitamins Retrieved from
Crandell, Kathleen. (N.D) Fat Soluble Vitamins Retrieved from
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