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Waste management in the Philippines Essay

Issues of Garbage in the Philippines

The more waste in the Philippines causes the increase in global warming, high temperature and less oxygen because of the air pollution. The Philippines’ trash increased by 40 percent in 2010 and the ocean found 1,355,236 items of trash and people, nearly 400,000 volunteers, gather from around the world just to help in the Philippines.

The lists of the garbage in the ocean were plastic bags 679,957, paper bags 253,013 and food wrappers 103,226. Also recovered were 38,394 pieces of clothing and shoes, 55,814 tobacco-related items including cigarette butts 34,154, lighters and wrappers, and 11,077 diapers. These can cause poison and toxic in the ocean and you may see these trashes in some body of water like the Manila Bay.

In 2006, garbage increase 76 percent of the garbage was made of plastic and 51 percent was plastic bags at Manila Bay.
In September 27, 2009, Ondoy’s flood caused millions of water hit around in the Philippines then the Ondoy’s cyclone also left behind 10 times the usual garbage accumulated in Metro Manila. The trash collected by Ondoy blocked some sewage in the streets that caused poor water drainage, mud and more water. People are cleaning 24 hours and are struggling in different location since September 26 and continuously heavy rain and the trash moves down at the mountain and where the garbage place is. Improper Waste Management

Mismanagement of waste has serious environmental consequences: ground and surface water contamination, local flooding, air pollution, water pollution, global warming, exposure to toxins, and spread of disease. Many of the disposal sites contain infectious material, thus threatening sanitation workers and waste-pickers. Improper disposal of hazardous waste causes adverse effects on human health and environment. The effects are direct ingestion through drinking, inhalation of contaminants that volatilize from heated water, absorption through the skin during washing, consumption of goods derived from plants or animals exposed to polluted water. Waste disposal results in pollution of canal water and subsequently in death of animals due to cyanide contamination. Below are some methods of waste disposal that are cannot ensure proper safety means: 1.Landfills and open dumps

Waste management through the use of landfills involves the use of a large area. This place is dug open and filled with the waste. The area is then covered up with soil. Landfills are not safe because they give off gases like methane, which are highly hazardous. You should not carry out waste management through landfills if you cannot ensure proper safety means. Landfills and open dumps, according to studies, account for 34 percent of human related methane emission to the atmosphere, a global warming gas that has 23 times more heat-trapping power than carbon dioxide. These landfills and open dumps are illegal under RA 9003. 2.Incineration

Incinerators, on the other hand, have significantly higher levels of greenhouse gas emissions (per kilowatt) than a coal-fired power plant when all of the carbon coming out of an incinerator stacks is measured. Such
emissions are banned by the country’s Clean Air Act. Inaction on garbage contributes to the death of at least two persons every minute due to complications from environmental problems, which could be prevented if the country only developed a more efficient environmental management program. Waste Management

Waste management is the collection, transport, processing or disposal, managing and monitoring of waste materials. The term usually relates to materials produced by human activity, and the process is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health, the environment or aesthetics. Waste management is a distinct practice from resource recovery which focuses on delaying the rate of consumption of natural resources. All waste materials, whether they are solid, liquid, gaseous or radioactive fall within the remit of waste management. Waste management practices can differ for developed and developing nations, for urban and rural areas, and for residential and industrial producers. Management of non-hazardous waste residential and institutional waste in metropolitan areas is usually the responsibility of local government authorities, while management for non-hazardous commercial and industrial waste is usually the responsibility of the generator subject to local, national or international authorities.

Methods of Proper Waste Management

It is important how you carry out waste disposal. In today’s world where population is on the rise and so is rapid industrialization, creation of waste material is a common phenomenon. These wastes are harmful to the environment and how you dispose them off depends on how they affect the environment. Proper disposal of waste material helps keep the environment free from disease causing pathogens and keeps it green. There are methods of proper waste management that will help you keep your environment clean. 1.Garbage segregation

Garbage segregation is a process of dividing garbage into ‘reduce’, ‘reuse’ and ‘recycle’ materials. Waste segregation means dividing waste into dry and wet. Dry waste includes wood and related products, metals and glass. Wet waste, typically refers to organic waste usually generated by eating establishments and are heavy in weight due to dampness. Waste can also be segregated on basis of biodegradable or non-biodegradable waste. Landfills are an increasingly pressing problem. Less and less land is available to deposit refuse, but the volume of waste is growing all time. As a result, segregating waste is not just of environmental importance, but of economic concern, too. The most rational way to cope with all this is to collect it at its source in each area and to separate it immediately where possible. The way that waste is sorted must reflect local disposal systems. The following categories are common:

•Cardboard (including packaging for return to suppliers)
•Glass (clear, tinted – no light bulbs or window panes, which belong with residual waste) •Plastics
•Scrap metal
•Special/hazardous waste
•Residual waste

Recycling is one of the most well know method of managing waste. It is not expensive and can be easily done by you. If you carry out recycling, you will save a lot of energy, resources and thereby reduce pollution. You can also save money if you recycle. You can recycle papers, glass, aluminum and plastics. If you want to reduce the volume of your waste material, the best way to do so would be to recycle. If you recycle, you can eliminate batteries, tires and asphalt from your waste material and this prevents them from ending up in the landfills and incinerator. The municipality of almost all cities encourages their citizens to take up recycling. Be a responsible citizen and reduce your waste by recycling.

This is a natural process that is completely free of any hazardous by-products. This process involves breaking down the materials into organic
compounds that can be used as manure. You can carry out composting in your own backyard. You can use the leaves, grass, twigs and add vegetable and fruit peels and skins. After a few days, you will see that the matter has decomposed. You can use this compost, which is rich in nutrients, to improve the soil in your garden. THE BENEFITS OF COMPOSTING

THE MAIN purpose of composting is to reduce the amount of solid waste. Half of the trashes we generate are biodegradable. This means it can be broken down by microorganisms in the soil and turned into compost. Composting our biodegradable waste is highly encouraged under the law as it cuts by half the trashes that go into our dumpsites. Composting is like recycling because we turn organic waste into soil conditioner and even fertilizer for our plants. It enriches, restores and replenishes the topsoil with valuable nutrients. Through composting, organic waste is made useful because it goes back to the cycle as plant food and on into the food chain. Finished compost is a natural fertilizer that is more environmentally friendly than chemical fertilizers. With the proper volume, finished compost can be sold to farms and homes to enrich garden soil.


TO START composting in the barangay or your backyard, you will need a compost pile or heap. There are other ways of making compost other than using a sack. Choose a method that is right for the volume of the compost and the availability of space or materials. Below are some of the commonly used methods:

The heap is the simplest form of composting. Simply pile the ingredients and turn the material with a shovel once in a while for it to get air. The heap should also be watered to keep it moist so microorganisms can thrive. Composting happens slower with this method.

The twin pits requires ample open ground. Dig two square pits one meter on each side and one meter deep. In the middle of the pit, vertically plant a PVC pipe where holes have been drilled on its entire length. The holes allow
air in. The pipe can be 3.5 meters long and 4 inches in diameter. Dump the ingredients of the compost on the first pit. There’s no need to turn it as it would be difficult since it is below the ground. The perforated pipe will provide continuous supply of air. Transfer the finished compost to the second pit.

The compost bin is simply a box structure placed above ground. The sides can be made of interlaying wood or wooden pallets. This allows air to come in on all sides. Compost is easier to turn once in a while if one of its sides can be opened. Cover the bin to prevent excess rainwater and animals from getting in. Collect the finished compost from the bottom.

The chicken wire is a structure that basically holds together the compost heap above ground. It provides excellent ventilation on all sides. Cover the wire structure to prevent excess rainwater and animals from getting in. Collect the finished compost from the bottom.

The tower tires can be an inexpensive way of composting in the backyard. Just stack old tires and fill in with material. Place rocks or wood in

Waste Management Hierarchy
The Waste Management Hierarchy

This hierarchy stresses the need to firstly reduce the amount of waste created, then re-use wastes, then recover (via recycling, composting or waste-to-energy facilities) and finally, as a last resort to dispose of waste to landfill. Helpful Tips for Managing Your Wastes

Buy durable products instead of those that are disposable or cheaply made. Repair/restore used items before replacing them.
Buy items you can re-use. For example, drink tap water, not bottled water. Use china or enamel crockery rather than plastic or paper plates and bowls. Use real cutlery rather than plastic. Pack school lunches in reusable containers with lids. Buy concentrated products to reduce packaging. Examples are concentrated fruit juice, laundry detergent, fabric softener and window cleaner. Use an electric shaver or a higher quality razor with replaceable blades. Use plug-in appliances instead of those that operate on batteries. Buy items you can recycle locally through curbside collection or recycling centers. Buy beverages in returnable or recyclable containers. Learn more about recycling options in your community.

List all the things you can recycle through your city’s curbside program or your local recycling center. Then list the things in your trash that are non-recyclable. Next time you go shopping, look for recyclable substitutes. Avoid excess packaging when choosing product brands. Buy products in bulk, but only buy an amount you will use: larger sizes reduce the amount of packaging, but smaller sizes reduce leftover waste. Pass unwanted items on to friends and family. Or sell unwanted items or offer them to someone else for free. Several good websites now exist that allow you to do this. You may also donate unwanted items to a local charity or place of worship. Make really good use of your waste compost bin or get one. Keep a small container by the sink to put waste items for the compost bin straight in. Reduce toxic waste by purchasing paints, pesticides and other hazardous materials only in the quantities needed, or by sharing leftovers.


Protecting our environment and natural resources from the hazards caused by improper solid waste management has been a continuing struggle for every Filipino. We are both victim and culprit to the country’s garbage problem and, regardless of our stature in society, we all must take part, do our share and make our community safe from disaster. The enactment of Republic Act No. 9003, or the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act, paved the way for a shift from indiscriminate waste disposal to institutionalized proper solid waste management at every household and community. By requiring the segregation of solid waste at source, the law educates every son and daughter the basics of proper environmental management in the hope that, as they grow older, the environmental consciousness may be brought into their school, business, and place of work.

Compliance with other environmental standards on wastewater, air pollution, medical and hazardous wastes would no longer be difficult to comprehend and can easily be made part of the day-to-day practice of every business and industry in the country. Behavior is a key cultural aspect that is embedded in people’s way of life. Studying a community’s behavior and introducing new ones requires intensive, long-term, and creative social marketing. This can be done by studying the demographic and cultural fiber of the community through immersions and capacity building activities. The Resources, Environment and Economics Center for Studies, Inc.’s (REECS) 2002 study on household waste management systems and the attitudes and behavior of the communities in two barangays in Metro Manila ( Bennagen, Nepomuceno, Covar, 2002) showed that:

1. Waste management is still perceived by many as the responsibility of government. 2. Public participation in waste management, especially in segregation at source, remains limited. 3. More extensive awareness- raising activities and training on ecological waste management are needed, together with stricter enforcement of the Law and local ordinances must be observed. 4. There is lack of community empowerment and political will to resolve the problem.

Recognizing the importance of the environment’s immediate recovery and effects of improper waste management to the Philippines, there is a need for understanding and reformation of attitudes and concern towards the protection of environment. The impending garbage crisis can be prevented if we only practice waste segregation at source, recycling, and composting as what the law requires. An intensive social marketing program has to be established on a long-term scale within a barangay – the smallest unit of the local government.

A Term Paper
Presented to
Department of English
College of Social Science and Humanities
Mindanao State University
Marawi City

In Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Course
English 2 – Section Cc2
First Semester, 2013-2014

September 5, 2013

•Guidelines for waste management with special focus on areas with limited infrastructure •
• • • •How to develop a waste management and Disposal strategy

• •Solid Waste Management Made Easy

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