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Virtual Microscopy Essay

1 Describe three differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The three differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are: Eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus inside their cells, while prokaryotic cells have genetic material condensed in a nucleoid region. Organelles such as mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, chloroplast, and endoplasmic reticulum are present in eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic don’t have. However, the mitochondria and chloroplasts found in eukaryotic cells have larger ribosomes as compared to the ribosomes found in prokaryotic cells.

Works cited:
“Animal Cell vs. Plant cell.” http://www.diffen.com/difference/Animal_Cell_vs_Plant_Cell

2. Describe three differences and three similarities between plant and animal cells. The three differences: Plant cells have cell walls present while animal cells do not. Animal cells do not have chloroplasts and plant cells have. Plant cells contain larger vacuoles while animal cells may contain smaller vacuoles.

The three similarities: Plant and animal cells have a nucleus. They both have mitochondria present. Lastly, they both have organelles.

Works cited:
“Animal Cell vs. Plant cell.” http://www.diffen.com/difference/Animal_Cell_vs_Plant_Cell

C. Form a hypothesis
1. Hypothesize about how you might be able to sort a mixed population of cells into prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Try to be practical, build on your understanding of the differences between the two cell classes. I believe by sorting the mixed population of cells into prokaryotes and eukaryotes will be based on how living organisms grow. There should be some kind of cell sorter to separate these cells because they are similar, but not identical. And, if prokaryotes are not bacterial cells then this can be sort into smaller size from the larger size of cells.

This could be determine the differences between the two cells, with a slightly grown and one’s that are fully grown cells in a mixed population. Therefore, understanding the differences of the two cells is an important and is a very critical process.

2. Hypothesize about a means to separate out plant cells from a mixed sample of eukaryotic cells. A means of separating plant cells from a mixed sample of eukaryotic cells would be visualizing the cell types and shapes with microscope. If the sample is a piece of organelles found in eukaryotic cell; for example, chloroplast. Then, this organelle sample must be isolate from a mixed cell types. This result can be analyzed and used to separate cell types because chloroplast can be found in plant cells and not in eukaryotic cell. These help the means in isolating different cell types by their shape and good techniques.

Virtual Lab 2: Cellular Processes

A. Bacterial Growth.
1. Estimate how long it takes for this population of bacteria to double. Hint- this population doubles multiple times during the duration of this recording. It takes 20-30 minutes for this population of bacteria to double.

B. Cellular reproduction
1. Estimate the percentage of time that a constantly developing cell spends in interphase. Use the cell cycle links. The percentage of time that a constantly developing cell spends in interphase is about 61 %.

2. In a random selection of 100 such cells, estimate the number that would be undergoing mitosis at any given time. (Use your answer from part 1.) I believe 61 would be undergoing mitosis at any given time, but not all cells were mitosis.

3. Understand the basic differences between mitosis, meiosis, and binary fission. Is mitosis more similar to meiosis or to binary fission? Explain your reasoning. Mitosis is an important process that enables all organisms to generate two identical cells. During the Interphase, chromosomes are replicated in preparation for mitosis. Then, cell division takes place in four stages: Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase. Mitosis begins as chromosomes tangled, then divide which the spindle pulls apart into opposite ends of the cell. So, each chromosome moved and line up, and then splits into two cells so that new cell will have the same genetic information as the original cell. Thus, mitosis completed and created two daughter diploid cells.

Meiosis occurs in many organisms, including humans, fungi, bacteria, plants, and animals. These organisms produce sperm, egg, and gametes; and they carry chromosomes that are genetic paired from two individuals because of cross over. This means that before meiosis diploid cells the chromosomes must prepare to enter Interphase to replicate cells. Then, it proceeds to two cycles: Meiosis I (Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anaphase I, and Telophase I) and Meiosis II (Prophase II, Metaphase II, Anaphase II, and Telophase II). After the two cycles, meiosis created four daughter haploid cells.

Binary fission is used for reproduction by prokaryotic cells. In some prokaryotes such as bacteria, binary fission occurred and begins to replicate the original cell’s DNA. Then, the original cell divides into two new identical daughter cells.

Therefore, mitosis is similar to binary fission because it involves the reproduction of two identical daughter cells unlike meiosis leads to four daughter haploid cells.

Works cited:
Phelan, Jay. “What is life?” Guide to Biology. 2nd ed. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company, 2013. Print. 2013


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