Montessori Approach * Teachers specifically educated in Montessori philosophy and methods. * Partnership with families. * Multiaged, heterogeneous groups of children * Diverse Montessori materials and experiences, carefully presented and sequenced to children’s needs. * Schedules that allow large blocks of time to problem solve and become deeply involved in learning. * A classroom atmosphere that encourages social interaction for cooperative learning. * Teachers are given instruction in presenting directions in sequential steps. * The major responsibility of the teacher is to create a “prepared environment”.
* Montessori teachers also create an atmosphere of calm and order. Bank Street Approach * Lucy Sprague Mitchell together with Caroline Pratt and Harriet Johnson established the Play School which is also called the first nursery school in the US which used the “developmentally appropriate” program. * Focuses on themes of great interest to children- the “how, what and why” explorations of the physical and social worlds and the question of origins. * Five key social studies subjects- cultural anthropology, history, political science, economics and geography.
Some common group activities such as cooking, trips, listening to music and group discussions. * Children are encouraged to learn in their own way. * Play is the heart of the developmental-interaction approach. Play is the most profound means available to children for constructing and formulating knowledge. * The function of the teacher is to create the physical and psychological learning environment. * The teacher’s role is an observer and facilitator of learning. * The recognition of the importance of family involvement and communication. Waldorf Approach.
* Rudolf Steiner an Austrian Philosopher established the Waldorf Education. * Key understanding is “human as the integration of body, soul and spirit. He used the phrase, “head, heart and hands”. * Its goal is to educate the whole being, so that thinking, feeling and doing are integrated. * Steiner divided childhood into seven-year developmental stages as Piaget’s. * Kindergarten Level which learning is largely experiential, imitative and sensory based. Learning is primarily though doing -“hands”. Elementary level which learning is artistic and imaginative.
Learning is primarily through the artistic expression of the feeling -“heart”. Adolescence level which learning is through intellectual understanding and ethical thinking or the “head”. * Eurythmy is unique to Waldorf School which is a movement art that usually accompanies music and includes elements of role-play. * Waldorf approach discourages exposure to media influences such as TV and computers. * Learning is non-competitive thus there are no grades. Teachers write their evaluation of each child at the end of the year. Reggio Emilia Approach.
* By the courage of the parents at the northern town of Reggio Emilia, the school had been established. * One of the “Best Ten Schools” in the world * The corner stone of Reggio Emilia experiences an image of the child as competent, strong, inventive and full of ideas, with rights instead of needs. * Preparing an environment that is carefully designed to facilitate the social constructions of understanding and to document the life within the space as well as to nurture aesthetics. * The importance of relationship among children, teachers and parents is a vital component of functioning in the Reggio Emilia.
* Working together at every level through collaboration among teachers, children and teachers, children and children and children and parents and the larger community. * Providing a verbal and visual trace of the children’s experiences and works and opportunities to revisit, reflect and interpret. * Progettazione means making flexible plans for the further investigation of ideas and devising the means for carrying them out in a long term projects through collaboration with the children and parents and at the times larger community. * Listening closely to the children’s interest and devising a means for provoking further thought and action.
* One hundred languages of children- encouraging children to make symbolic representations of their ideas and providing them with many different kinds of media for representing those ideas. High/Scope Approach * David Weikart developed this curriculum. * Its philosophy is that children need active involvement with people, materials, ideas and events in order to learn. * Children as active learners, spending much of their time in a variety of learning centers. * Plan-do-review in which teachers assist children to choose that they will do each day, carry out their plan during work time and then review with the teacher what they have done.
* Key experiences which include concepts based on Piaget’s ideas of the cognitive characteristics and learning potential of preschoolers. * Using anecdotal notes to chart individual children’s progress on a High/Scope tool. * Its curriculum identifies five ingredients for active learning for young children which includes- materials for the child to explore, manipulation of materials by the child, choices by the child about what to do with the materials, language from the child and support from the adult.
* High/Scope Preschool “Wheel of Learning” which basic principles are –based on work of theorist-Piaget, central role of active learning, importance of manipulating materials, adult’s role in focusing children’s attention and language on learning, choices and activity centers emphasized and importance of observation and assessment. Creative Curriculum * Foundation of research and theory of child development including the ideas of Maslow, Erikson, Piaget, Vygotsky Smilansky and Gardner as well as recent information on brain research and resiliency research.
* An understanding of how children develop and learn. * An emphasis on setting up the structure of the learning environment, including setting up and maintaining interest areas, establishing schedules and routines, organizing choice times and small-and-large group times and creating a classroom community where children learn how to get a long with others and solve problems. * Consideration of the body of knowledge discussed in national and state standards and research reports in six content areas: literary, math, science, social studies, the arts and technology.
* A range of instructional strategies for teachers to use in large-and-small group times and long-term studies. * A construction of the teacher’s role that includes becoming a careful observer and using a variety of instructional strategies and interactions with children to guide their learning. A system for ongoing, authentic assessment-based on observations made during everyday classroom activities-enables teachers to plan for each child as well as the group.
* An acknowledgement of the importance of creating partnership with families, with emphasis on communicating ways families can support children’s learning at school and at home. Take Home Activity Create a chart that compares the six approaches discussed under the headings: * Major ideas of philosophy * Environment * Materials * Teacher Roles * Features not seen in the other approaches Make your chart in a long bond paper. And in the second bond paper, make at least 10 sentences about the question “Which among the six approaches is the best curriculum/approach for Filipino pre-school students? ” Deadline of submission is on Sept 24.