Pie Chart Showing the Occupational Expectation of the Trainees: Government Institutions Pie Chart Showing the Occupational Expectation of the Trainees: Private Training Schools Pie Chart Showing the Total Occupational Expectation of the Trainees: Total 2 2 3 4 5 6 C HAPTER I INTRODUCTION This paper reports the results of a small tracer study and discusses how tracer studies can be used as a planning tool to assist education and manpower planning. To make education institutions more efficient, we need to know what happen to graduates. One way is to conduct tracer studies.
Such studies are useful for assessing the labour market performance of graduates and school leavers. Uses of Tracer Studies Tracer studies can be used to achieve the following: • To collect information on how well the graduates are doing in the labour market • To get feedback from the graduates to modify and upgrade the education institutions • To meet the needs of the employers • To make tracer studies as part of labour market information system • To make use of the labour market information to assist policy planners. C HAPTERll METIlODOLOGY AND SURVEY DESIGN.
The tracer study questionnaires used include items such as employment status, income, basic demography, waiting time for employment, job changes, attitude to jobs and qualitative feedback on courses and programmes of training institutions. Samples of fresh graduates from Yangon Institute of Technology (YIT), Civil, Government Technical Institute (GTI), Mandalay, Machine Tools, Agriculture High School, Myittha, during the three academic years 1984/85, 1985/86, 1986/87, were first chosen at random and then efforts were made to establish contact with those graduates included in the sample.
Next, a few individuals who received training in specific skills like Computer Operations, Tailoring and Auto-repairs run by private establishments were also chosen at random and interviewed. Table 1 Training Institutions Run by the Government No. Training Institutions 1984/85 3 1986/87 Yangon Institute of Technology (Civil Eng. ) Government Technical Institutes (Machine Tools) Agriculture High School (Myittha) 203(10) 244(10) 274(10) 30 17(5) 48(5) 44(5) 15 66(5) 50(5) 24(5) 15 Total 2 Academic Year 1985/86 Sample Size 286(20) 342(2) 315(20) 60 Note: Sample sizes are given within parenthesis.
Table 2 Skill Training Course Run By Private Establishments No. Training Institutions 1988 1 2 3 Computing and Typing Tailoring Auto-Workshop Total 5 3 2 Intended Interview 1989 1990 5 3 2 5 3 2 Total 15 9 6 30 Interviewers were sent all over the country to contact the graduates selected for interviewing through local administrative bodies. More than one visit was needed in tracing some 3 respondents for shifts in their places of residents. It is important to note that the sample sizes for private skill-training courses were fixed in advance for the sake of convenience. Table 3 Response Rate by Type of Graduates/Skills Sample Response.
Response Rate % B. E (Civil) GTI (Machine Tools) (Mandalay) AHS (Myittha) Computing and Typing Tailoring Auto-workshop 30 15 27 15 90. 0 100. 0 15 15 9 15 15 9 6 6 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 100. 0 Total 90 87 97. 0 No. Graduates/ Type of Skills 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. C HAPfERill PLACEMENT OF GRADUATES Relationship Between Type of Diplomas/Degrees and Type of Work In our study of graduates from some training institutions, both in the formal and non-formal sectors, we see that some are employed in jobs which are related to their educational training, but a great majority found their jobs do not match with their training or acquired skills.
For example, a graduate of Yangon Institute of Technology is found to take up the profession of a primary assistant teacher and another as a self-employed shop-keeper. Also a graduate of an Agricultural High School (AHS), took up the post of a Primary Assistant Teacher (PAT). A tracer study on the graduates of computer centres reveal that most of them take up the course because of the challenge of a new subject and also because the universities are closed for the time being. A currently employed PAT attending the course of computer said that her training and her work does not relate.
She has a bachelor degree with physics major and has the feeling that she should be employed in a field in which her training might prove to be useful. Our study reveals that training systems such as computer schools, secretarial, typing schools are currently very popular and heavily attended in the sense that trainees perceived that the new market oriented economic policy would create job opportunities for them. Currently it is seen that such level of employment has not been reached yet. To those who took up computer training a few are fortunate enough to find employment in the same institution.
Most of the trainees of typing school usually take it as a pre-course for computer training. Some attended such courses to while away before the university opens. Such reasons clearly bring out the fact that ultimately employers are the ones who decide on employment. Since employers have great influence over labour market the most obvious solution is to place training under the control of a board in which employers receive higher representation. Table 4 Match Between Training and Employment No. Institute (or) Training 1. Institute of Technology Government Technical Institutes Agricultural High School.
Computer Training Tailoring Short Hand and Typing Auto-workshop 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Related 16 Not Related 4 8 11 1 1 2 5 1 1 1 5 Employment and Unemployment Situation of the Graduates The tracer study brought into view that among the 87 respondent, 38 per cent are not employed. Graduates of higher education face unemployment more often than lower education level graduates after completing their studies. A research was conducted in 1977 to find out the prospect that graduates have in securing jobs, the types of occupation where graduates are placed and how graduates have to wait to find jobs.
Ten per cent of the graduates from Yangon Arts and Science University, Yangon Institute of Technology, the Institute of Economics, the Institute of Education, the Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science. the Institute of Agriculture, under the Department of Higher Education and the Institute of Medicine and the Institute of Dental Science under the Ministry of Health were surveyed. The total response was 41 per cent within two months. Based on a survey regarding the number of applications submitted for jobs, the highest was found among the B.
E (Engineering) degree holders and the lowest among the B. Sc degree holders. Six per cent of the graduates who were offered the jobs they had applied for, did not accept the job. The main reasons for this was that either the place of the job was too far out, or there were problems related with the family or the salary was low. Out of the 259 respondents 70 per cent were employed and 30 per cent were not yet employed. B. E. graduates and B. Sc graduates were found to be the largest in number among those not yet employed.
In the recent survey in 1990, it was found that more than 59 per cent of the YIT and 53 per cent of the GTI graduates had found employment. For the AHS graduates the extent of employment was about 80 per cent. Among graduates of Computing & Typing only 40 per cent and among Tailoring 22 per cent were able to find employment. Auto-workshop trainees are employed cent per cent. This is so because the nature of the job is arduous and young people are not willing take on this type of training highly. Table 5 Type of Training and Extent Employment (Per cent) No. Type of Institution
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. YIT GTI AHS Computing & Typing Tailoring Employed Unemployed 59. 0 53. 0 80. 0 40. 0 100. 0 41. 0 47. 0 20. 0 60. 0 0. 0 Occupational Expectation of the GraduatGs The external efficiency of an education system involves relationships between general and vocational education and between schools and work opportunities, what schools and teachers can be expected to do in preparing for future occupations and what may be expected from a combination of learning in and out of school. The relationships are intricate and diverse and can be summarized as follows. 6.
First to promote economic growth, it is essential to have a trained labour force equipped to handle technical and managerial problems. This presents a more severe problem for developing countries, where skilled manpower is scarce and enterprises that could provide opportunities both for training and employment is lacking. Secondly the problem of unemployment in the modern sector among graduates and others leaving school. In other words, labour supply versus labour demand. Thirdly – policy makers, employers as well as individual tend to consider formal education as passport to jobs in the modern sector.
To increase their chances for employment with higher wage, students tend to remain in school as long as possible, sometimes for more years than required by the available jobs. Table 6 Occupational Expectation of the Trainees No. Training Schools 1. 2. AHS No. /1) Industrial Training Centre Government Private JVC 2 3 10 I. /1 +2) 3. 4. 5. Tailoring Computing and Typing Auto-workshop 11. /3+4+5) 9 30% 108° 19 69% 22]0 4 7% 25° Ill. Total /1 +2+3+4+5) 22 49% 176° 19 42% 151 ° 4 9% 33° 2 14% 50° 13 86% 310° 3 6 7 7 2 5 Co-op 7 Figure 1 Pie Chart Showing the Occupational Expectation of the Trainees.
Government Institutions J. V. C (15. 7%) Private (0. 0%) Private Training Schools 8 Total Government (49. 0%) Private (42. 0%) In our study on trainees from various institutions, we find that 49 per cent of the trainees wanted to join government departments, 42 per cent the private sector and 9 per cent tlie JVCs. It was found that no one wanted to join the cooperative sector. Among the trainees interviewed, two large groups were identified: those attending government training schools and those attending private and non-formal training schools.
It was found that among those attending government training schools 86 per cent wanted to join government departments and 14 per cent preferred the JVCs. Most of the trainees taking private or non-formal training desired to join the private sector and to get government jobs as well. A tracer study of 1976177 graduates also point out that 67 per cent of the ograduates wanted to work with state enterprises or departments; less than 1 per cent the cooperative sector and the private sector and the remaining wanted to take up any type of work or set up their own businesses.
This is understandable, for the state had been the major employer prior to the adoption of the market oriented economic policy, but after the adoption of the new economic policy, trainees actually look forward to join the private sector for work. This fact reflected the need for studying the labour market conditions placing more emphasis on employment effectiveness of the private sector. Income is also one of the main factors in the occupational expectation of the graduates. Our study is concerned with the income generation of graduates. Most begin their work with very low pay.
For the YIT graduates, the majority had to start work with a monthly income ranging from K 400 – K 750. For technical schools it is much lower, between K 200 – K 450. Most of them start to work on a flat-payor daily wages basis. Graduates from the non-formal education sector such as auto-workshop workers, typists were found to earn more than university graduates. This is a natural flow of blue collar job workers earning more than white collar job workers in the initial period. The nature of the work is different although there is less wage differential. C HAYfER IV ISSUES AND RECOMMENDATIONS Methodology.
Tracer studies are usually ad-hoc exercises covering only a few institutions or types of graduates. To use tracer studies as an aid to education/manpower policy making, graduates from all the institutions or programmes run by the Ministry of Education and other ministries should be analyzed. To encompass all the institutions and programmes, a sample will need to be selected. To be precise, the question should be asked of what size of sample is necessary to reflect the market demand for specific types of educated manpower. Another issue in methodology is formulating questions. At the centre of a tracer study is the questionnaire.
In designing questions it should be borne in mind that much of the resulting analysis will be statistical and therefore the answers will need to be in a form where by they can be aggregated. Another important consideration in designing questions is to ensure that their meaning is clear and unambiguous. There are some factors to take into account in the wording of questions. All wording should be simple, direct and familiar. Each question should have a single issue. Operation The result of tracer studies can be useful to and fed into the work of several ministries, particularly Education, Labour and Planning.
There should be a permanent tracer study unit in one of the above ministries. The advantage of setting up a permanent tracer study unit is that it can integrate information from tracer studies to national planning purposes. The setting of a permanent tracer study could develop a series of tracer studies right across to education/training system. To improve policy decision on education and manpower, tracer studies need to be organized as part and parcel of the activities of the institution and the information they generate should regularly be fed into the policy-making process. Recommendations.
To get up-to date information on the labour market performance of graduates, Tracer Studies should be made regularly. To train more-people who will be in charge of the tracer studies. The person in charge should have, as a minimum, practical experiences of survey work including coding and analyzing cross tabulation. C HAPrER V CONCLUSION As this paper reports the results of a small tracer study and discusses tracer studies as a method of obtaining regular feed-back on the labour market performance of graduates, it can be used as a tool to assist education and manpower planning.
Tracer studies provide information on the demand for educated workers. Besides this it has other advantages. First, the surveys are simple to conduct. Secondly, the typical questionnaire used is short and uncomplicated, and can easily be completed by respondents. The third is that almost all of them can be conducted by mail. They are therefore inexpensive to carry out. The survey can be conducted when graduates return for their graduation ceremony. Fourthly the data collected by tracer studies can be easily analyzed and understood by non-economists.
Like all techniques to aid policy-making, tracer studies have shortcomings. Some of those shortcomings concern data reliability while others stem from the assumptions that underline tracer studies. I L IST OF WORKING PAPER SERIES 1. Education Data Review and Analysis 1 . 1 1 . 2 Performance Indicators in Higher Education by U Thein Htay (DHE). 1. 3 Performance Indicators in Technical, Agricultural and Vocational Education by U Myat Naing (MERB) and U Nyunt Maung (DTAVE). 1 . 4 Quantitative Review of Education Staff by U Tun Hla and U Myint Thein (DBE).
1. 5 2. Performance Indicators in Basic Education by U Saw Win (Institute of Economics). Population Projections (1983-2013) by U Nyan Myint (Institute of Economics). The Quality of Education 2. 1 2. 2 Pedagogy by Oaw Nu Nu Win (Institute of Education). 2. 3 Curriculum by U Myint Han (MERB). 2. 4 Student Evaluation by Dr. Khin Saw Naing (Institute of Medicine 2). 2. 5 3. Teacher Quality by Daw 00 Khin Hla (Institute of Education). Student Characteristics by U Maung Maung Myint (DBE). Education and Employment 3. 1 Manpower Demand and Employment Patterns in a Changing Economy by Dr. Thet Lwin (Institute of Economics). 3. 2.
A Tracer Study of Recent Graduates: Implications for Education and Manpower Planning by U Kyaw Kyaw (Department of Labour). 3. 3 Linkages between Training Institutions and Employers by U Tun Aye (Ministry of NO. 1 Industry), Daw Myint Myint Yi (Institute of Economics) and U Van Naing (DBE). 3. 4 Education and Work Performance (A Survey of Employers’ Perceptions) by Daw Hla Myint (Institute of Economics). 3. 5 Non-Formal Education in Myanmar by Daw Win Win Myint (Institute of Economics) and Daw Lai lai Yu (MERB). 3. 6 Labour Market Institutions in Myanmar by U Kyaw Kyaw (Department of Labour). 4.
Costs and Financing of Education 4. 1 4. 2 Government Expenditure on Education by Oaw Soe Soe Aung (Institute of Economics) . 4. 3 5. Management and Administration of the Education Budget by Or. Khin Ohn Thant (Ministry of Planning and Finance).
Non-Government Expenditure on Education by U Saw Gibson (Yangon University). Education Infrastructure 5. 1 5. 2 A Comprehensive Survey of Education Facilities by U Sein Myint (OBE), U Nyi Hla Nge (Yangon Institute of Technology), Oaw Win Win Myint (Institute of Economics), Oaw Naw Joy Loo (Institute of Medicine 1), U Saw Wynn (OBE) and Oaw Win Win Maw (In.stitute of Medicine 1).
5. 3 The Provision of Infrastructure by U Nyi Hla Nge (Yangon Institute of Technology), U Nyunt Hlaing (Ministry of No. 1 Industry), U Tet Tun (Ministry of Construction) and U Sein Myint (OBE). 5. 4 6. The Construction Sector by U Tet Tun (Ministry of Construction), U Nyi Hla Nge (Yangon Institute of Technology), Oaw Naw Joy Loo (Institute of Medicine 1) and Oaw Win Win Maw (Institute of Medicine 1). Norms and Standards for Education Facilities by U Nyi Hla Nge (Yangon Institute of Technology), Oaw Win Win Maw (Institute of Medicine 1), and U Tet Tun (Ministry of Construction).
Organization and Management of the Education System 6. 1 6. 2 The Cluster System for Primary Schools by U Myint Han (MERB). 6. 3 7. Organization and Management of Basic Education by Oaw Hla Kyu (OBE) and U Myint Thein (OBE). Organization and Management of Universities and Colleges by U Saw Gibson (Yangon University) and U Thein Htay (OHE). Special Studies 7. 1 Economics and Business Education by Oaw Cho Cho Thein (OBE). 7. 2 The Teaching of Science and Technology by U Khin Maung Kyi (OBE). 7. 3 The Teaching of English by Or. Myo Myint (Yangon University). 7. 4 Higher Education by U Myo Nyunt (Institute of Education).