P1 – Explain how the application of relevant principles and values will enable professionals to provide holistic support for individuals who use social services
Health and social care practitioners are expected to have certain values and standards to treat each service user with fairness, justice and equality. Guidelines and codes, such as the Care Value Base, which was introduced by the Care Sector Consortium in 1922, are followed by health and social care practitioners to ensure the empowerment of service users. The aim of practitioners following the Care Value Base is the improvement of the service user’s life and ensuring that each service user receives the best possible care for them as an individual. It also helps to set standards for each practitioner to work to so no service users are mistreated or poorly cared for. The care value base is a set of values that a health and social care practitioner should practise when working with service users to help them to achieve the best possible care and lives.
Values are important in health and social care as they influence the way in which we interact and work with individuals. It is important to have the correct values as a practitioner so you are able to make informed decisions best suited for the service user while ensuring their opinions and views are taken into account also. Age, ethnicity, gender, ability will all factor in decision making processes and the care the service user will receive. Our own individual attitudes are linked to our own personal values and morals. They will affect our behaviour and treatment towards others. If people are working together in a group they may develop a group identity which involves shared values and expected behaviour.
If the group follows the same set of policies and procedures they are able to work in a professional manner and support service users in the best possible way in accordance to their needs. In this report I am going to look at 2 service users and how values and principle’s effect the support and care they receive. The first case study I will be looking at is about a 50 year old man, Peter that has learning disabilities. He uses Makaton as form of communication to communicate with carers at the day centre he attends. The second case study I am focusing on is a Muslim girl, Kirin, who attends a day centre for those with physical disabilities. She takes part in fasting during Ramadan and prays throughout the day.
Empowerment and choice
When supporting individuals it is important to empower them. Empowerment in health and social care means the service user is able to have choice and is able to make decisions over their health and lives. This will be done by giving support and offering a lot of patience. A service user should have the power to be able to control their lives and decisions that will affect them as much as possible. Empowerment of the service user means giving them dignity and choice as well as respecting their beliefs and thoughts. A health and social care practitioner should not assume that every service user feels and thinks the same way. Every person is different and has different needs- regardless of race, age, gender, background or ability. By encouraging choice and individuality a care worker will be valuing each service user, avoiding the service user feeling devalued as well as appropriately following the Care Value Base. Peter could be empowered by giving him a choice of activities to choose from.
This shows that his own thoughts and feelings are taken into consideration by asking what he would like to do. As he suffers with learning disabilities he is unable to perform certain activities which mean he has lost some independence in his life. However, by ensuring he is included in decision making processes, such as daily activities in the day centre, this will help to give a sense of independence for Peter. Another method the day centre can use to meet the Peter’s needs is to communicate with him on a one-to-one basis. The day centre worker needs to take into consideration Peter’s preferred communication method to effectively communicate with him. This will help eliminate any communication problems. Peter uses Makaton which means he prefers to communicate via pictures, signs and symbols. The centre can support this by creating a daily chart of possible activates and using it throughout the day by pointing and asking Peter what he would like to do.
They could also use a similar chart with pictures of foods at meal times to ask Peter what he would like to eat/drink. This will ensure Peter’s feelings are being taken into account which will ultimately give more control over his own life. Kirin can be empowered by working with day centre workers that understand and are knowledgeable about her religious beliefs and practises. A practising Muslim will pray 5 times throughout the day and fast during Ramadan. However as Kirin has a physical disability, she may find it difficult to pray at the appropriate times. It is important for Kirin to have a day centre worker who is knowledgeable about these practises and can work to implement them into her care so she is respected and supported properly. The day centre worker will need to assure that breaks for prayer are included into her daily activities and will help Kirin to pray each day.
They must also be knowledgeable about Ramadan and when she is fasting. A Muslim who is fasting will refrain from eating or drinking during hours of daylight. The case study states that Kirin leaves the day centre an hour after darkness falls. It is important for Kirin to be fed and to drink before she leaves the centre so she does not become dehydrated or malnourished. While other members of the day centre may be eating at lunch time around noon, Kirin will be abstaining from this so the day centre can support this by giving her a choice of activities to do during lunchtime so her religious practises are valued. By doing this, Kirin will not feel uncomfortable and left out from her peers. The day centre will be empowering her by emphasizing with her religious beliefs and respecting her as an individual.
All service users have a right to confidentially, to be safeguarded, given choice and have their individuality respected. In every health and social care setting a service user must not be discriminated against and receive equal and fair treatment. A service users rights can be promoted in ways, such as using different methods of communication (e.g. sign language) for those who do not speak orally. Service users also have the right to be involved in any decisions made for them. If they are unable to make decisions for themselves an advocate could be appointed to the service user. This could be a friend, family member or a trained advocate who will represent the best interest of the service user. In every health and social care setting they must make the service user aware of their rights. They can do this by always offering choice, asking for their thoughts/opinions during decision making processes, and giving the service user privacy, respect and dignity at all times.
If a service user is not aware of their rights they may be unfairly treated. It should be highlighted to the service user of how they can make a complaint if they do feel mistreated in anyway so their needs are not neglected or abused. Peters rights can be promoted by having one-to-one sessions monthly about how he feels about attending the centre and if there are any issues/improvements needed in his care. As Peter suffers with learning disabilities he may feel unconfident with communicating himself.
It is important to have someone who understands and is able to use Makaton, his preferred communication method, during these sessions so he does not feel discouraged to talk about any issues which would create further problems. Kirins rights can also be promoted by having regular one-to-one sessions on how she feels her time at the centre is going. The centre could use an advocate to speak on her behalf about any problems and issues she may be facing if she feels too nervous. The advocate should have a good understanding of her religious beliefs so they are able to represent her effectively while promoting her individual rights. By doing this, Kirin will feel valued, supported and her voice will be heard.
Recognizing Their Preferences
It is important for a health and social care practitioner to find out the service users preferences. By doing this, the service user will be able to stay in control of their lives and live independently as much as possible. They can do this by asking what type of carer they would prefer. For example, an older woman may prefer their care worker to be female during washing and dressing. By acknowledging preferences, the service user will feel valued and the practitioner will be effectively supporting the user. Peter may prefer to work with a male carer if he is to assisted with during sensitive times, such as going to the toilet or changing/washing. Kirin however may prefer a female carer at these times as she is a Muslim woman who may feel comfortable with someone of the same sex. It is important for the centre to not assume and ensure they ask what their preference is. By taking the time to listen to Peter and Kirin, their needs will be recognized and they will feel valued. This will, in turn, be an effective partnership.
Involving the individual with care planning
In a health and social care setting the care should always from a person centred approach. This focuses on each service users individuals needs and their wellbeing as a whole, not just physically. “Person-centred care sees patients as equal partners in planning, developing and assessing care to make sure it is most appropriate for their needs. It involves putting patients and their families at the heart of all decisions.” – The Health Foundation (2012). This means including the service user in decision making processes as well as considering their feelings and opinions in their own care. They should always be included in any discussions and consulted in any decisions made. Both Peter and Kirin will need to be involved in their care plan if it is to be effective. A care plan is defined as; “A care plan is put in place for a person eligible for support.
This sets out how their package of support will work, and is also sometimes called a support plan. The person you care for should be fully involved in agreeing their care plan and also receive a written copy. ” – NHS (2014) Peters care plan will need to include tackling his learning disabilities and communication issues with his carers. It will also include their own personal goals set by himself and his care workers. This could be setting small goals such as learning a certain amount of new words and sentences in Makaton by a particular time. This will give Peter direction, purpose and something to work towards for the future. Kirins care plan must support her physical health well as her social, emotional, mental health.
As she has physical disabilities, her care plan will include involvement of carers who understand her abilities. She may set goals to work towards, such as increased independence. For example, improving her mobility and focusing on tasks like being able to make food or get a drink without or with little assistance. She may wish to be able take an active part in sports like wheelchair basketball or rugby. Her care workers must help her achieve her goals in her care plan. By including Kirin in her care plan, she will feel she has control over her life which will help give her independence and confidence.
Respecting their religious/cultural beliefs, moral beliefs and value The UK has a multicultural society which impacts health and social care environments, such as the NHS. As well as a diverse range of professionals who work within health and social care, the service users receiving care also come from a wide range of cultures and ethnicities. It is important to acknowledge this as there are many different types of behaviours and beliefs that affect people. This can provide many exciting opportunities, forms of treatment and new learning experiences for both practitioners and service users alike. However within a diverse society people often lack knowledge and society of other cultures and races and may become fearful of the unknown. This can happen especially within health and social care as people are vulnerable when in need in these services. Health and social care settings are all legally required to respect and value all people regardless of religious, cultural or ethnic beliefs and attitudes.
It is important to embrace and value diversity amongst individuals within health and social care. Recognizing and celebrating diversity in health and social care environments will influence how others view difference in a positive way. Although the case study does not mention the race/culture Peter is from, the day centre can promote diversity and culture to him. This may involve taking in part in events such as St David’s Day (patron saint of Wales) or St George’s day (patron saint of England). The centre may get service users to dress up in traditional clothes, eat traditional food and learn about the history/culture of the country.
As well as promotion of diversity, members will develop a sense of community and interest of different cultures during the celebration at the centre. Kirins religious needs should to be supported and celebrated at the centre. As a practising Muslim, she will follow the beliefs of Islam as well as any cultural traditions. The centre can positively support this by encouraging all service users to celebrate Islamic holidays such as Eid. They could also encourage Kirin to talk about her religion to the other members to educate other service users and carers about her beliefs. They could also Kirin any questions they may have which will help develop their understanding. This will help remove any barriers created by the ‘unknown’ and break stereotypes. By doing this, Kirin will feel her religious beliefs are being valued and respected.
Promoting anti-discriminatory practise
Discrimination occurs when people are prejudice towards an individual or group of people. Anti-discriminatory policies and legislations are put in place to prevent this from happening. Discriminating against an individual or group could include excluding people from activities, opportunities, avoiding people due to differences, making assumptions, treating needs as being less value than others, abusive language and physical assault. According to Stretch B and Whitehouse M (2010) “Care workers need to understand the importance of avoiding discriminatory language and behaviour in order to employ anti-discriminatory practises in their own work”. Discrimination can prevent a person’s needs from being met. It can also put the service user at risk of harm and have damage on their physical, mental and psychological health. It is important for health and social care settings to understand and value diversity and not stereotype to ensure their overall needs are met. There are three main types of discriminatory practise;
•Direct – This is when individuals are openly discriminatory towards others. Words and actions are used to deliberately disadvantage an individual or group. E.g. A practitioner giving treatment to only certain types of people in their care and avoiding giving care to other individuals. •Indirect – This is when conditions are in place that show a preference towards certain people over others. E.g. rules set in place to avoid a certain type of group from participating in society. •Institutional – No policies or procedures are put in place for anti-discriminatory practise and there is a lack of multiculturalism within a setting or any inclusive practise. The day centre Peter and Kirin attend can promote anti discriminatory practise in many way different ways. This can be in ways such as making sure they are included in all activities and events happening in the setting. Despite the fact that Peter has difficulty communicating it is important to ensure he is not isolates from any activities.
Peter should never be discriminated against due to his limited communication abilities. This may be done by getting Peter to interact and socialize with other members at the centre. The care worker will need to help him communicate, possibly by using picture charts and symbols. If Peter becomes friendly with other members and is able to socialize with them, he will feel happier during his time at the centre. The centre can promote anti discriminatory practise by ensuring that every care worker understands her religious beliefs.
It is essential for health and social care practitioners to respect everyone regardless of their religious or cultural backgrounds. The centre should enforce tolerance and respect to every individual who works and attends the day centre. Ensuring that Kirin is not excluded due to her religious beliefs, such as at meal times if she does not eat pork. The day centre workers should always have suitable food alternatives for her to eat. She may also wear a headscarf and it is important for everyone Kirin interacts with to respect this. If Kirin’s beliefs are openly supported and respected in the centre, the likelihood of discrimination will be low.
Taking a holistic approach to planning their care
A holistic approach to care focuses on looking at the person as a whole rather than focusing one particular way of caring and treating the individual. This approach takes into account a person’s individuality as well as their physical, intellectual, mental, social, cultural, spiritual, psychological and emotional well being. The practitioner must provide opportunities to meet these needs. If a service user is not treated holistically their overall well-being will be overlooked and important needs will be ignored.
For example, if a care worker is supporting an individual they must look at the bigger picture by taking into account the entire person’s needs rather than focusing solely on certain issues. A competent worker will also address any other issues they may notice will assessing the individual and not just focus on the one problem they have been given. For example, a family who have been referred to a social worker due to problems with the children at school, if a social worker notices their food supply is not adequate for proper nutrition they must also take this into account to support the family competently.
Working in partnerships
In 1990 the NHS Care and Community Act was introduced and has encourage health and social care agencies to work together in partnership to support individuals. Working in a partnership involves sharing and contributing together to identify the best possible care for the service user. For example, a social worker and a support worker may work together to use their various skills and expertise to develop an effective care plan for an individual. Peter and Kirin’s care may include the involvement of many different organizations. Peters care plan could work with charities (alongside the day centre he attends) that support those with learning disabilities, e.g. Mencap. “Mencap works with people with a learning disability to change laws, challenge prejudice and support them to live their lives as they choose.” – Mencap.org (2013)
Working with an organization that supports people with learning disabilities Peter is more likely to receive better care from those who understand his condition. Kirins may work with many different organizations and people who understand her disability needs. A charity that supports disabilities could work with her, such as Scope. “Scope exists to make this country a place where disabled people have the same opportunities as everyone else.” – Scope.org (2014) The charity can help influence Kirins care in a positive way by ensuring her individual needs are met. Working in a partnership with disability charities like Mencap and Scope, Peter and Kirins care will be more effective due to a wider range of expertise and knowledge of particular conditions and issues. Peter and Kirin will be empathized with further with any issues and receive a wider range of opinions than working with one organization solely.
Confidentiality is important in the Health & Social Care sector. “Organisations that handle confidential health and social care information have to ensure that it is held securely and shared appropriately.” – HSCIC (2014) Every service user is entitled to the right for their private information to e confidential. Any confidential information should be kept securely stored and locked so only authorised people have access. Health and social care practitioners must understand how to use confidentiality and also when it is necessary to break confidentiality in order to safeguard the client. Making sure the service user to feel safe and secure is as well as respecting their privacy is essential for gaining trust.
However there are certain circumstances when you may have the right to break confidentiality. This is normally involves extreme circumstances such as concerns for safety, abuse or harm to the person involved or others. Making the person involved aware that if the information they share will be passed on depending on what discussed. This will make the service user able to trust their practitioner with serious issues and problems will be addressed much earlier. Peter & Kirin’s day centre workers must respect their personal information and only share it on a need to know, professional basis. Peter will have limited access to his personal information because he is vulnerable and may be tricked into sharing it with someone who may manipulate confidential information. Kirin’s information will also be kept confidential to respect her dignity and safety. Every service user has a right to these things. Maintaining confidentiality will develop trust and confidence of sharing information between the service user and the practitioner.
Health and social care practitioners all have a responsibility to follow policies and procedures by the organization they work for. This will be outlined in their employment contract as well as their professional code of conduct. Service users will be correctly safeguarded and supported when practitioners follow these guidelines. As well as this, they must follow the relevant health and safety legislation, such as the Health and Safety Work Act, which will protect practitioners and service users alike from hazards and harmful environments.
They also have a responsibility to work efficiently with other professionals and ensure the care a service user receives is a person centred approach and based on their own individual needs. Every health and social care worker has a responsibility to communicate effectively and handle information professionally and sensitively. Peter and Kirins carers have a responsibility to safeguard, protect, respect and care for them holistically. The NHS states that carers have a responsibility to;
• live independently
•have as much control over their life as possible
•participate in society on an equal level, with access to employment and a family life
•have the best possible quality of life
M1: Review the benefit to individuals and professional staff of taking a holistic approach to planning support.
It is vital for a health and social practitioner to create a care plan that looks holistically at the service users which covers all their needs; physically, emotionally, socially, spiritually and mentally. The care plan will ensure every need is met and provide a way of tracking progress of the client. Care plans should ensure they involve the service user as much as possible which helps to empower them to make their own decisions. They should also be written down in a clear manner, without confusing terminology, that can be understood by the client and other services. It is important for the care plan to be clear about the goals set for the individual’s goals and needs as well as list the actions needed to meet these goals. It should regularly be reviewed and updated with the involvement of the service user.
Service users will feel empowered and in control of their own care when they involved in their own care plan. If Peter or Kirin were suffering from emotional problems such as issues that are happening in their home life, it is the care workers responsibility to address this rather than solely focusing on issues that they face at the day centre. The care worker would need to help Peter and Kirin’s will any problems and report anything heard that may be lead to harm for them. Keeping care plans up to date and following them through with targets and goals set will help track Peter and Kirin’s progress at the centre. It is their duty to review their care plan and make sure it is still relevant to the service user’s current needs. A service user will benefit from a holistic approach to their care as they will be treated as a whole person rather than on labels or illnesses. The benefits for Peter would mean his physical, social, emotional, mental, intellectual needs are all considered in his care plan.
Peter is an older man so is likely to enjoy things like sport, cars and certain eclectic hobbies. When care workers are organizing activities for him they will take this into account, especially for recreational time. His learning disabilities will affect how he interacts with others so the main focus of his care will be teaching different method and improving his communication skills. As he finds it hard to interact with his carers, he may work closely with only one or two care workers to build up trust. This will help Peter gain confidence and trust. The care worker will learn over time the best ways to communicate with Peter and develop a good relationship with him. A holistic approach to Kirin’s care plan means all her needs will be met rather than just focusing on her mobility issues. Kirin will benefit from a person centred approach to her care so her over all well being and needs are met. As Kirin is a Muslim woman she may have certain cultural and religious needs as well as her disability.
If it possible, the centre may allocate her a care worker that is female so she will feel more comfortable during her time at the centre as well as someone who understands her beliefs. Ensuring Kirin’s emotional, mental, intellectual, physical, social needs means she will be empowered and valued as an individual. Staff who work with Peter and Kirin will also benefit from taking a person centred approach to their care. By ensuring all their needs are being met holistically, stress is less likely to occur. Care plans that take into account all the service users needs means that responsibility is spread out and structured so each care worker is performing different duties/tasks in order to promote the service users preferences, needs and choices.
When a health and social care organization takes a holistic approach to care they are successfully supporting the service user as it is essential not to ignore or look over certain needs and focus on only one issue they may have. D1 – Analyse reasons for working with professionals from more than one agency when planning support for individuals A multi-disciplinary/inter-agency approach involves a number of people from various specialist professions and services who work together in order to care and support the service user with minimal issues. These approaches are generally effective due to a wide range of skills and resources made available during the care planning process. There are many benefits to a multi-agency team within a health and social care setting;
early identification of any issues and intervention
easier or quicker access to services or expertise
improved achievement in education and better engagement in education
better support for parents
children, young people and family’s needs addressed more appropriately better
reduced need for longer-term or more specialist services.- Safe Network (2013)
A review of how health and social care organizations work together was called up in 2000 after a regretful case of a young girl called Victoria Climbie who died in the care of her aunt who abused her yet no professional or organization noticed the signs identifying this. Important legislation which was introduced in 2013 called the ‘Working together to safeguard children document’. This policy identifies that all professionals and organizations have a responsibility to protect service users under their care as well as outlining the importance of following a common assessment framework (CAF). The main points in this assessment involve;
Identify the needs early: identifying whether the child/ young person may have additional needs. Assess those needs: gathering and analysing information on strengths and needs using CAF. Deliver integrated services: determining a plan and delivering interventions to meet those identified needs. Review progress: reviewing the actions and delivery plan. Identifying further actions where necessary and supporting the child/ young person’s transitions – Protecting Children (2014)
When a health and social care practitioner follows this framework they are likely to meet the service user’s needs and be able to spot any problems and issues which ensures the service user is being cared for in a holistic manner. Every care provider has their own expertise that they specialize in. This means that a range of knowledge will be brought to the table to improve the care they offer the service user. Also with a variety of carers involved in the care plan, many thoughts/opinions will be shared which could result in new ideas being developed. By gaining a wide range of opinions during issues that relate to the service user, it will be easier to find a solution amongst many different professionals rather than one practitioner with one mindset and limited knowledge. Teams working together to develop a care plan for the service user will maximise their level of expertise and the service user will ultimately receive better care.
Another positive to this approach is that it will also reduce the chance of repeating care in similar roles such as a support worker performing the same job as a day centre worker. This will save time and money for both organizations. In a multi-disciplinary team equipment and facilities can be shared which avoids duplication of resources. It may however be challenging at times due to many different opinions and conflict on particular topics which means coming to a final answer could be difficult. These teams must work together and communicate effectively to avoid problems for the service user. It is also important for the service user to be aware of the power that these teams have and for this power to not be misused. If the service user disagrees with what is suggested in their care plan they have every right to voice this.
Nhs.uk, (2014). Community care assessment care plan – Care and support – NHS Choices. [online] Available at: http://www.nhs.uk/CarersDirect/guide/assessments/Pages/Thecareplan.aspx [Accessed 1 Jan. 2015]. Health Foundation, (2012). Person-centred care – Health Foundation. [online] Available at: http://www.health.org.uk/areas-of-work/topics/person-centred-care/person-centred-care/ [Accessed 3 Jan. 2015]. Safenetwork.org.uk, (2013). Benefits of multi-agency working | Early intervention | The Safe Network. [online] Available at: http://www.safenetwork.org.uk/training_and_awareness/Pages/benefits-of-multi-agency-working.aspx [Accessed 03 Jan. 2015]. Protectingchildren.org.uk, (2014). Common Assessment Framework – CAF – Child Protection – CCLC. Available at: http://www.protectingchildren.org.uk/cp-system/child-in-need/caf Accessed: (06/01/15) NHS (2011) Available at: http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/documents/950/codeofpractice.pdf Accessed: (09/01/15)
Hscic.gov.uk, (2014). A guide to confidentiality in health and social care – Health & Social Care Information Centre. [online] Available at:
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