Thurstone, Gardner, Guilford, Spearman, and Sternberg all had great theories about intelligence. With Thurstones statistical procedure, Gardners Multiple Intelligence aspects, Guildfords Three Dimensions, Spearmans Specific Mental Abilities, and Sternbergs three aspects of a personality. All of them have flaws or problems and can be personally reflected by myself. Thurstone opposed the general intelligence concept, which states that every task is measured by an intelligence test.
Thurstones theory of factor analysis was used to identify different strengths and weaknesses. Factor analysis is a statistical procedure, which identifies clusters of related items, also called factors, on a test. The flaw in this theory is that it is a culturally biased. Other cultures may have stronger strengths in different intelligence areas such as math, science, English, etc. Another flaw would be gender. Men and women both have different strengths and weaknesses such as different experiences in life.
Another flaw may be that not everybody in the entire world either has one weakness or a certain strength. Thurstones factor analysis doesn’t analyze every single strength and weakness, which would be impossible. Gardner believed in multiple intelligences, which included eight aspects including spatial, linguistic, logic, math related, bodily kinesthetic, musical interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic. Multiple intelligences is the idea that rather than having one single intelligence that is used in multiple areas, we have many different independent intelligences.
Breaking down all of these aspects into a study will provide much more accurate interpretations of intelligences rather than a more broad ones like Sternbergs three aspects. One flaw I found with multiple intelligence is that there are so many factors that it isn’t as applicable to the general population today. Also, Gardeners theory may be critiqued by not fully evaluating the domains of intelligence. Things such as process efficiency, working memory, and self –awareness, are all examples of the multiple intelligence theory.
Guilford came up with the famous structure of intellect, or SI Model. It contains three dimensions of content, products, and operations. Content dimension is composed of visual, auditory, symbolic, semantic, and behavioral processes. The products of the SI model contain units, classes, relations, systems, transformation, and implication structures. The operations category contains brain processes such as cognition, memory, divergent, production, convergent production, and evaluation intelligent processes.
Guildfords SI Model is also an open system, leaving it open for change and critique. One critique might be the flaw of changer. His model has changed so much that it is increasingly become more and more difficult to understand and interpret. Guilford, might have classified me under the auditorial and visual intelligence because of the simple fact that that is the way I tend to learn best. Spearman believed in general intelligence, something that was applicable to everybody in the world. Also, it is measured by every task on an intelligence test.
There are many flaws with general intelligence, one being a cultural flaw. Every human has the potential to learn equally. Because different cultures may stress ore on different subjects, the learning potential can vary. For example. The Chinese culture tends to follow more of a math and science education route. The general intelligence factor is a way to generalize information, but is the platform and building blocks of the other understandings of intelligence that are introduced such as multiple intelligence and the SI model.
Sternbergs theory was based off of Gardners eight aspects of intelligence except much more generic to the human population and easier to comprehend the three aspects include analytical, creative, and practical intelligences. Analytical being the ability of picking apart problems and being able to see multiple solutions to them. The practical intelligence or contextual intelligence would be being able to see practically and the ability to adapt, shape things, and selection. You could also compare this to “street smarts”.
Creative intelligences being able to make up something out of new materials without instructions. For example, making a chair in tech ed. The flaw with this theory is that it is not really a broad aspect of cognition; it tends to lead more to the sets of skills people are naturally born with. Although Thurstone, Gardner, Guilford, Spearman, and Sternberg all had very analytical and complete theories about intelligence, there were some flaws to them. Flaws such as cultural, generalization, and gender flaws. However, all of them had intelligence theories that could relate to me.
Courtney from Study Moose
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