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Utilitarianism Essay Topics & Paper Examples

Skepticism Philosophy

Skepticism: • It comes from the Greek word skeptikoi which means “seekers” or “inquirers. ” • It refers to the critical attitude wherein a man questions different things including the well-known absolute truth or knowledge. • Note that skepticism (philosophical that is) should be contrasted with philosophical dogmatism wherein the latter is the direct opposite of the former. Philosophical dogmatism refers to an attitude wherein a man believes to have absolute truth/knowledge (“dogma,” meaning strict rules). Short History of Skepticism Classical Skepticism. Gorgias • A Sophist who believed that nothing really exists. • He lived from 483-376 B. C. (Leontini, Italy). He went to Athens to fulfill his mission as an ambassador. He was a student of Empedocles. • In…

Decision making

SLIDE 1 – INTRODUCTORY SLIDE Ethical theories provide part of the decision-making foundation for Decision Making When Ethics Are In Play because these theories represent the viewpoints from which individuals seek guidance as they make decisions. Each theory emphasizes different points – a different decision-making style or a decision rule—such as predicting the outcome and following one’s duties to others in order to reach what the individual considers an ethically correct decision. In order to understand ethical decision making, it is important for students to realize that not everyone makes decisions in the same way, using the same information, employing the same decision rules. In order to further understand ethical theory, there must be some understanding of a common set…

Social responsibility

The utilitarian view requires that the focus should be on the effects of the decision/action, such as effects in the form of benefit or costs. Aside from considering benefits and costs, this view also considers the number of people affected. In essence, a decision/action that benefits more people is generally viewed as more favorable. This view is limited because the definition of such benefit/cost can be flexible, based on the person’s perspective and the context. The moral rights rule puts emphasis on the individual rights. For example, this rule requires that the decision/action should lead to the maximum protection of these rights, as much as possible. For example, a decision/action that provides greater protection for the privacy rights of employees…

Intrinsic value

Moral judgments are decisions, not conclusions Decisions ought to be made situationally, not prescriptively We should seek the well-being of people, rather than love principles. Only one thing is intrinsically good, namely, love: nothing else Love, in this context, means desiring and acting to promote the wellbeing of people Nothing is inherently good or evil, except love (personal concern) and its opposite, indifference or actual malice Nothing is good or bad except as it helps or hurts persons. The highest good is human welfare and happiness (but not, necessarily, pleasure) Whatever is most loving in a situation is right and good–not merely something to be excused as a lesser evil Moral theology seeks to work out love’s strategy, and applied…

Utilitarian Moral Theory

Present in your own words the basic elements of a utilitarian moral theory. Utilitarianism is established as a theory promoting increasing utility and especially the happiness of as many people as possible. Utilitarian’s believe the function of morality as a social institution, is to advocate humans well-being by increasing welfare and decreasing damage. Thus, moral rules are regarded as a way to accomplish individual needs and meet social aims. The first basic element of a utilitarian moral theory is The Principle of Utility. In which, it’s important to understand that behaviours are considered correct when they foster happiness and wrong when they spread unhappiness. The public benefits of health care, research, medicine and so on should be maximised. The second…

Utilitarianism Theory

Utilitarianism is a moral theory generally considered to have been founded by Jeremy Bentham, a 19th century English philosopher and social reformer. It is centered on the concept of happiness, and those who seek it. The idea is that all people seek happiness, and that it is the ultimate goal of all human beings to be happy. Therefore, according to classical utilitarianism, when a person wishes to act in an ethically sound manner he or she should strive to bring about the greatest possible amount of happiness for the greatest possible amount of people. This is known as the greatest happiness attitude. Another, similar idea is that a person should always strive, if incapable of producing happiness, to reduce unhappiness….

Kant and Utiliarianism on Sweatshops

By definition a sweatshop is a “negatively connoted term for any working environment considered to be unacceptably difficult or dangerous. Sweatshop workers often work long hours for very low pay in horrible conditions, regardless of laws mandating overtime pay and or minimum wage”. Many corporations in the United States use sweatshop labor in countries over seas such as China to produce their products at a lower cost. As entailed in the letter from a man born in China, many citizens on these countries resort to factory labor to support themselves to escape other sources on income such as prostitution. Without these corporations usage of oversea sweatshops these employees would be forced to return to self-demeaning jobs such as these. However,…

Utilitarianism Is the Best Approach to Environmental Issues

Utilitarianism is a consequentialist ethical theory and therefore when evaluating ethics and the environment they would look at the end result and not necessarily the action. Utilitarianism is a teleological theory and would look at the purpose or the end goal of an action. With regards to deforestation the end goal is to create space for new homes, particularly in Brazil and therefore according to utilitarianism this is ethical because it brings great pleasure to those who are provided with homes. Utilitarians believed that ethics could be found in what bought about the greatest amount of pleasure and providing these homes would do just that. This also according to Mill who was concerned with qualitative pleasure rather than quantitative pleasure…

Ethics Utilitarianism

a.) Explain the main differences between the utilitarianism of Bentham and that of Mill. Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that looks at the concept of `utility`, or the usefulness of actions. Two of the most famous Utilitarians were Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill; Bentham was the first to introduce the theory, and his views were more similar to that of Act Utilitarianism. Mill on the other hand differed in his views, and his intention was to improve the theory, and his ideas were closer to that of Rule Utilitarianism; and Mill was also the one to coin the name of the theory. Although it is the same theory, the two philosophers had two different concepts of the best approach…

Ethics Essay Primark

This essay shall look at the cost to human life and lifestyle through the demand of low cost clothing in the UK. This will be undertaken specifically looking at Primark and the Rana Plaza factory collapse in Bangladesh, observed as modern day slavery, having a “race to the bottom” characteristics, occurring as a consequence of globalisation. This essay will analyse differing ethical approaches including Virtue, Kantian and Utilitarian ethics. An overview of the findings will be given, using the Rana Plaza Factory in Bangladesh as a case study, along with an analysis of Primark’s supply chain. Bangaldesh has for many years has been used for outsourcing, attractive to western clothing companies supply chains due to low costs. Bangladeshi’s economy is…

Dentex Corporation Case

The problems and issues mentioned in the case Dentex Corporation are: 1. Issue related to corporate social responsibility 2. Issue related to promotional deceiving 3. Issue related to equal opportunity in workplace 4. Issue related to employee responsibility 5. Issue related to bribery 1. Issue related to corporate social responsibility One of the major issues mentioned in the case is about corporate social responsibility. Dentex Corporation came up with the styling new line of car, Rento. It was considered as a rushed project, thus they skipped preliminary survey. The design was dominated by style different from the other Japanese and European cars, which lead to the placement of fuel tank behind the rear axle (Dentex Corporation, PDF document). The crush…

Egoism and Utilitarianism

Egoism focuses on what would make a person happy regardless of the actions one takes in order to fulfill desires of heart. It refers to the ability of considering oneself first, and others later. A person strives to achieve what she/he feels that will make her/him better-off without putting in mind the effects of personal actions on others. Egoists do things to only please themselves and not others. Moral value is determined on what is done rather than the consequences the action. However, it seems impossible to please self while being under directive of someone else. Utilitarianism on the other hand advocates for the happiness of many. Utilitarianism works on the principle of utility whereby, service to others is given…

Utilitarianism, deontological, and virtue theory ethics

Utilitarianism, deontological, and virtue theory ethics are three normative approaches to ethics. This paper will go over the similarities and differences between virtue theory, utilitarianism, and deontological principles. It will include information of the variations in how each concept details ethics, morality, and it will also discuss a personal experience to describe the correlation between virtue, values, and moral perceptions as they relate to one of the three theories. Similarities and Differences Virtue theory emphasizes character traits rather than the rules or consequences while deontology is described as an action that is right only if it is in accordance with a moral rule or principle. Utilitarianism puts more emphasis on the consequences and that decisions should be made based on…

Ethics Essay

What is Ethics? It is the binding good character, being respectful, and having trustworthiness amongst others. The topics that will be touched on is the differences between morality and ethical theories. Finally, I am going to touch on my personal experiences in relation to virtue, values, and moral concepts. Morality and ethics are almost one in the same in the greater scheme of things. They both work together to make up ethical decisions by a person. For example there are five key terms that breaks down the theories; which are Consequential, Egoism, Utilitarian, Act Utilitarian, and Rule Utilitarianism. Therefore, ethical theories and moral theories are broken down into two different categories consequential and non-consequential theories. Now what is the consequential…

Utilitariansim and Dickens’ Hard Times

Hard Times offers a critique of the Utilitarian ideology from a romantic perspective. Hard Times demonstrates that one cannot reason oneself to happiness, but that relying solely on the faculties of the mind will not fulfill the complexities of the human being. John Stuart Mills, in his paper Utilitarianism proposed the philosophy is “not something to be contradistinguished from pleasure, but pleasure itself, together with exemption from pain; and instead of opposing the useful to the agreeable or the ornamental…” However, Dickens did not find this harmony to be a possible outcome of the rigidity of logic, but found the imagination to be a more fertile ground for producing happiness. Dickens wrote of utilitarianism as it was applied during British…

Freedom vs Happiness in Brave New World

There are many things that people pursue, such as wealth, prestige, or the latest technology. Of our many pursuits, the most essential are happiness and freedom. However, a question arises: can we possess both happiness and freedom? Most people may not have a clear answer for that. Brave New World, through the actions of its characters, reveals that there exists a conflict between the possession of the two ideas. Lenina, having been conditioned to be happy, has unconsciously given up the ability to have freedoms. From birth, she was assigned the role of beta plus, trained to not seek art, science or relationships. All of her material needs and wants are met. Nothing can make her feel sadness or desire….