The aim of this essay is to analyse the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) and the Emotional Quotient (EQ), it will also endeavour to assess the Emotion Quotient of potential employees and how organizations have justified in adopting this in the final selection and promotion approach. LITERATURE REVIEW (MAIN BODY)
Intelligent Quotient is a score derived from one of several standardized tests designed to assess intelligence. The abbreviation “IQ” comes from the German term Intelligent-Quotient, originally coined by psychologist William Stern. When modern Intelligent Quotient tests are devised, the mean (average) score within an age group is set to 100 and the standard deviation (SD) almost always to 15, although this was not always so historically. IQ scores have been shown to be associated with such factors as morbidity and mortality, parental social status, and, to a substantial degree, parental IQ. While the heritability of IQ has been investigated for nearly a century, there is still debate about the significance of heritability estimates and the mechanisms of inheritance.
IQ scores are used as predictors of educational achievement, special needs, job performance and income. They are also used to study IQ distributions in populations and the correlations between IQ and other variables. The average IQ scores for many populations have been rising at an average rate of three points per decade since the early 20th century, a phenomenon called the Flynn effect. It is disputed whether these changes in scores reflect real changes in intellectual abilities.
Whether IQ tests are an accurate measure of intelligence is debated. It is difficult to define what constitutes intelligence; instead, it may be the case that IQ represents a type of intelligence. Whether IQ tests are an accurate measure of intelligence is debated. It is difficult to define what constitutes intelligence; instead, it may be the case that IQ represents a type of intelligence. The concept of Intelligence Quotient (IQ) which relates to the determination of level of intellect or sharpness of mind of a person is very common.
We normally use in our daily conversation that the IQ of a specific person is high or low. Intelligence tests are fast, accurate ways of determining a person’s strengths and weaknesses, and through the study of intelligence test results, schools and institutions can design better courses based on the test-takers needs. Without a test, a student or parent may continue to waste time teaching a child about areas she already understands while the educator may ignore areas that need the most attention.
Some Institutions, however, focus on strengths, finding areas where a test-taker may excel in the future. A psychological report from one of the universities abroad uses intelligence tests to identify jobs that best fit the mental qualifications of individual recruits. Instead of years of trial and error and doubt and indecision, a person can find out more quickly where she would do a better job. The advantages of Intelligence Quotient among others is that one of the best ways to get an overall view of human behavior which can then be analyzed by age, race, and gender. This allows behavioral scientists to study trends in various groups as they take the test. Analyzing the data in this way provides these scientists with insight into how different groups of people learn based on their test results.
This insight helps educators to tailor their teaching to get the best results. Since the IQ can identify the potential for academic achievement, schools can begin to develop students in a way that takes advantage of their natural talents. If a child’s talents are developed correctly, he has the potential to maximize his skills to be beneficial to society. For instance, if an IQ shows that the child has some talent in math and science, those interests and talents can be developed to help the child get into a medical, research, or engineering field. This helps a society keep a steady supply of people who can provide benefits, making life better for all of their citizens.
Emotional Intelligence (EQ) is a relatively recent behavioural model, rising to prominence with Daniel Goleman’s 1995 Book called ‘Emotional Intelligence’. The early Emotional Intelligence theory was originally developed during the 1970s and 80s by the work and writings of psychologists Howard Gardner (Harvard), Peter Salovey (Yale) and John ‘Jack’ Mayer (New Hampshire).
Emotional Intelligence is increasingly relevant to organizational development and developing people, because the EQ principles provide a new way to understand and assess people’s behaviours, management styles, attitudes, interpersonal skills, and potential. Emotional Intelligence is an important consideration in human resources planning, job profiling, recruitment interviewing and selection, management development, customer relations and customer service, and more.
Emotional Intelligence links strongly with concepts of love and spirituality: bringing compassion and humanity to work, and also to ‘Multiple Intelligence’ theory which illustrates and measures the range of capabilities people possess, and the fact that everybody has a value. The EQ concept argues that IQ, or conventional intelligence, is too narrow; that there are wider areas of Emotional Intelligence that dictate and enable how successful we are. Success requires more than IQ (Intelligence Quotient), which has tended to be the traditional measure of intelligence, ignoring essential behavioural and character elements. We’ve all met people who are academically brilliant and yet are socially and inter-personally inept. And we know that despite possessing a high IQ rating, success does not automatically follow. The word “emotion” is derived from the Latin verb “emoverse” meaning “to stir up” or “to move.”
Emotions may arise from internal or external stimulants which enkindle some needed actions to survive in the given circumstances. Some psychologists have listed primary emotions and they believe that primary emotions blend together to form the full spectrum of human emotional experience just like primary colours make up the whole range of colours. According to Robert Plutchik eight primary emotions are anger, fear, sadness, joy, disgust, curiosity / interest, surprise, and acceptance. Plutchik reasons that these eight are primary on evolutionary grounds, by relating each to behaviour with survival value.
For example, fear motivates flight from danger and anger motivates fighting for survival. They are considered to be part of our biological heritage and built into human nature. Emotional intelligence is a person’s ability to perceive and manage his own emotions in such a way that it ends with a successful interaction with his environment.
He can also perceive and manage his emotions in a manner that ends in a successful interpersonal interaction with others The emotions have scientific elaboration. In the realm of memory, emotional events are laid down differently by a parallel memory system involving a brain area called the amygdala. Emotions appear to employ largely unconscious machinery. For example, brain areas involved in emotion will respond to angry faces that are briefly presented and then rapidly masked, even when subjects are unaware of having seen the face.
Your Emotional Intelligence is your ability to deal effectively with other people based on an understanding of their feelings, as well as your own emotions. People with well-developed EI are effective communicators with strong, healthy relationships. They are able to “read” people and situations accurately and respond appropriately.
They feel comfortable in a variety of circumstances and have learned how to manage conflict, anger, fear and stress, making them good problem solvers. Researchers believe that E.Q. is influenced by early attachment relationships. The way that you handle these relationships is what decides your E.Q. Through training you are able to increase your E.Q. Some companies provide E.Q. workshops to help their employees better understand themselves Emotional Intelligence links strongly with concepts of love and spirituality bringing compassion and humanity to work, and also to ‘Multiple Intelligence Theory’ which illustrates and measures the range of capabilities people possess, and the fact that everybody has a value.
This is the essential premise of EQ to be successful requires the effective awareness, control and management of one’s own emotions, and those of other people. EQ embraces two aspects of intelligence which are: (1) Understanding yourself, your goals, intentions, responses, behaviour and all and (2) Understanding others, and their feelings. Goleman identified the five ‘domains’ of EQ as: i)Knowing your emotions.
ii)Managing your own emotions.
iv)Recognizing and understanding other people’s emotions.
v)Managing relationships, i.e., managing the emotions of others. Emotional Intelligence embraces and draws from numerous other branches of behavioural, emotional and communications theories, such as Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP), Transactional Analysis, and empathy. By developing our Emotional Intelligence in these areas and the five EQ domains we can become more productive and successful at what we do, and help others to be more productive and successful too.
The process and outcomes of Emotional Intelligence development also contain many elements known to reduce stress for individuals and organizations, by decreasing conflict, improving relationships and understanding, and increasing stability, continuity and harmony. When it comes to happiness and success in life, emotional intelligence (EQ) matters just as much as intellectual ability (IQ). Emotional intelligence helps you build stronger relationships, succeed at work, and achieve your career and personal goals.
Emotional intelligence (EQ) is the ability to identify, use, understand, and manage emotions in positive ways to relieve stress, communicate effectively, empathize with others, overcome challenges, and defuse conflict. Emotional intelligence impacts many different aspects of your daily life, such as the way you behave and the way you interact with others. If you have a high emotional intelligence you are able to recognize your own emotional state and the emotional states of others and engage with people in a way that draws them to you.
You can use this understanding of emotions to relate better to other people, form healthier relationships, achieve greater success at work, and lead a more fulfilling life. The EQ concept argues that IQ, or conventional intelligence, is too narrow; that there are wider areas of emotional intelligence that dictate and enable how successful we are. Success requires more than IQ (Intelligence Quotient), which has tended to be the traditional measure of intelligence, ignoring essential behavioural and character elements. We have all met people who are academically brilliant and yet are socially and inter-personally inept.
And we know that despite possessing a high IQ rating, success does not automatically follow. In short the significance of studies on EQ has increased with the expanding scope of knowledge. It has the same qualification in the field of law as well. The people related to field of Law everyday come across a number of stories which gave rise to conflicts and disputes evoking the need of solution through law suits. These stories are brimmed with emotional and sentimental behaviour of people.
Legislators, advocates and judges may not ignore the emotional aspect of any incident. It can, therefore, be concluded that the knowledge of EQ should not be confined to the books of psychology; rather it should be made applicable to all fields of life. Emotional intelligence can help you navigate the social complexities of the workplace, lead and motivate others, and excel in your career. In fact, when it comes to gauging job candidates, many companies now view emotional intelligence as being as important as technical ability.
Emotions have a physical as well as a psychological component. There are researchers who consider emotions to be biochemical reactions while other researchers define emotions as a conscious mechanism. “Most people who study emotions are somewhere in between and they view emotions as a coordinated response systems, so that an emotion occurs when there are certain biological, certain experiential, and certain cognitive states which all occur simultaneously. In other words, emotions operate on many levels.
In the book Emotional Intelligence, Daniel Goleman describes the brain’s flight or fight response when exposed to a perceived stressor. “Under stress, a nerve running from the brain to the adrenal glands atop the kidneys triggers a secretion of the hormones epinephrine and nor epinephrine, which surge through the body priming it for an emergency.
These hormones activate receptors on the vagus nerve; while the vagus nerve carries messages from the brain to regulate the heart, it also carries signals back into the brain, triggered by epinephrine and norepinehrine. (Goleman, The ability to control these various biochemical reactions has a proven direct positive impact on an individual’s health status and can help to reduce the risks of developing heart disease, diabetes, and hypertension. In addition, individuals have used various substances (alcohol, stimulants, depressants, etc.) in efforts to control the effects of these biochemical responses to stress, which often have further detrimental impacts on their welfare and safely.
Emotional intelligence plays a significant role in an organizations “decision making, leadership, strategic and technical break through, open honest communication, trusting relations and teamwork, custom loyalty and creativity and innovation.” (Cooper. & Sawaf. p.2) these factors directly relate to TQM principles and ultimately relate to the employees just how much they are valued and appreciated by the organization. How employees view themselves within the context of an organization is fundamental to their motivation and to their ability to strive for customer satisfaction. In addition, how the employees’ supervisor views EI and participation in training will greatly impact their willingness and ability to participate openly in the various sessions.
The more open and honest the supervisors are, the more likely the employees will feel safe and encouraged to participate without feeling threatened. Studies have indicated that the benefits of improving an employee’s E.I. through education and training have led to improved subjective and objective responses to stress. One study indicated “positive impacts on electromyography, adrenaline levels and blood pressure. Further data from organizations which have participated in stress management programs have indicated a reduction in health care claims and malpractice claims. By improving an employee’s ability to deal with stress, through raising their emotional intelligence quotient, the organization benefits as well as the individual.
The organization needs to understand and identify the need for helping employees; the process begins with the leadership. The leadership style and approach in dealing with their employees has a direct impact on the quantity and intensity of the stress experienced by the employees within that culture. The culture, in turn, is directly influenced by the leadership, who determine whether EQ training is relevant and important or whether the investment in time and resources are better made elsewhere.
How significantly the leadership values it’s employees has a direct impact on the milieu and on efforts to invest in the health and welfare of those employees. Furthermore, a non-punitive approach, with an emphasis on confidentiality and establishing trust with the employees, is essential for participants to accept the feedback they receive and to respond positively to this feedback. Individuals need time to process the information they are given and to be able to respond to this feedback; a safe environment in which they do not feel threatened is crucial to this process. Initially, once an organization has decided to provide EI training, an initial assessment should be performed.
“One of the first tasks of this initiative was to assess the level of stress in the organization, which was accomplished via a climate survey that allowed comparison with national benchmark data.” (“Stress management training” p.1) This assessment would explore the understanding and willingness of individuals regarding EI prior to participating in the training and, in addition, their perception of the validity of E I, which is then incorporated into the training program. A trainer also needs to assess the readiness of the participants to make these changes. There are multiple stages that individuals evolve through when confronted with the need to change.
Once they have evolved to the stage at which they perceive themselves to be ready for this change and determine it to be beneficial, they are then more likely to accept positive feedback and be able to make the needed changes. As indicated earlier, there many tools employed to assist with the training of stress management and the enhancement of emotional intelligence. Multiple analytical tools are available to assess emotional competence. With these tools it is possible to do an assessment, providing data which can later be analyzed and categorized. Two specific tools, the “Emotional Competence Inventory 360 and the Work Profile Questionnaire-EI Version are designed to be utilized in the work environment.”
(“Emotional Competence Framework”, p. 1) Emotional competence framework outlines key competencies such as self awareness, self regulation, self motivation and social competency indices. Sub-categories have been identified under each main category, which are measured. This framework establishes and documents the ideal characteristics exhibited by those with emotional intelligence. “The best assessment approach for rating social and emotional learning is usually based on multiple ratings conducted from multiple perspectives
Once individual assessments and scores have been obtained, training and education can be individualized to enhance assets while improving those areas where deficits exist. Training should include role plays, simulations, and group discussions since these techniques appear to reprogram the amygdale and neocortex. As is the case in a TQM endeavor, this is an ongoing, never ending process. Formal training usually is concluded within a 10-12 week time frame. Individual and group training continues, but is structured within the context of continuing the growth and development of the employees. Generally, it is recommended to outsource training to professionals trained in EI.
Once the formal training has ended, the organization can transition to resources within the organization. As individuals establish and strengthen their emotional intelligence, their ability to adapt to their changing environment improves. Research suggests that emotional learning and behavioural changes can occur in all individuals, regardless of their age. A major consideration though is to consider different types of learning. “Training and development efforts in industry have not always distinguished between cognitive learning and emotional learning, but such a distinction is important for effective practice.
Emotional incompetence often results from habits deeply learned early in life. These automatic habits are set in place as a normal part of living, as experience shapes the brain. As people acquire their habitual repertoire of thought, feeling, and action, the neural connections that support these are strengthened, becoming dominant pathways for nerve impulses. These habits can be replaced with new habits. Motivation is also a more significant factor with emotional learning then it is with cognitive learning. Linking the participant’s values to the behavioural adapting appears to influence positively the ability and desire of the individual to modify the negative behavioural trait.
Developing goals which are obtainable and lead to increased self-confidence appears to be a key element in development of new habits that are representative of emotional intelligence. The goals attained reinforce the behaviour and further lead to continued attempts at learning and improving ones’ EI through behavioural changes. Use of models that demonstrate the desired traits are very important to sustaining growth and continued learning in the adult participant. In addition, aiding employees in development of insight is fundamental to the ability to make behavioural changes and to continue to strive for improvement.
“Insight serves as a natural link between situations, thoughts and feelings. It enhances self-awareness, the cornerstone of emotional intelligence. And insight often paves the way for meaningful behaviour change. The direct supervisor, in addition to the leadership as a whole play a major role in modelling the constructive behaviour and setting the tone for further growth. Not only does leadership have a role in identifying the need for training, provides the resource for training while establishing a safe environment in which this learning can take place, they are looked upon as role models, and as such must demonstrate the traits that are encouraged in the subordinates undergoing such training.
In any TQM system, the leadership plays a significant role in nurturing the environment so that improvements can occur and be sustained. Reduction in swamping and the negative physical and psychological symptoms associated with stressors increase morale and job satisfaction, and retention of staff, which are all positive outcomes from developing skills in emotional intelligence. In all environments, the ability to improve interactions and to control ones’ negative responses to stressors are beneficial and enhance the individual’s quality of life.
The organization benefits since an employee who is healthier and happier is more likely to work to a higher standard, maximizing their creativity and ultimately be more invested in their job and the company’s vision and mission. Why focus on emotions? “Emotions are the
glue that holds the cells of the organism together in the material world, and in the spiritual world they’re the glue that holds the classrooms and the society together. If you’re unable to manage your stress levels, it can lead to serious health problems. Uncontrolled stress can raise blood pressure, suppress the immune system, increase the risk of heart attack and stroke, contribute to infertility, and speed up the aging process. The first step to improving emotional intelligence is to learn how to relieve stress.
Uncontrolled stress can also impact your mental health, making you vulnerable to anxiety and depression. If you are unable to understand and manage your emotions, you’ll also be open to mood swings, while an inability to form strong relationships can leave you feeling lonely and isolated. The advantages of emotional intelligence among others are Self-awareness and Self-management, effective Communication SkillsEmpathyAbility to sense what others are feeling and respond appropriately Ability to control and use Emotions to get results.
Knowing your own emotions and how they affect performance and how you can improve them fostering a culture of enthusiasm, commitment, initiative, innovation and determination to achieve corporate goals. Using emotion to motivate yourself and others to achieve goals and business success Reducing stress levels and enabling individuals to manage their own feelings and emotions positively Building stronger and trusting relationships with your staff Encouraging openness and bringing out the best in others Managing conflict, anger and change positively.
Emotional Intelligence and EQ allows both individuals and teams to gain insight into the key elements of leadership. Through professional coaching, leaders can work on targeted competencies to recognize current behaviour, thoughts and actions Explore and develop strategies for enhancement Gain higher levels of personal awareness demonstrate effective leadership and notice the impact on people around them reflect upon and review progress, recognise current behaviour, thoughts and actions explore and develop strategies for enhancement Gain higher levels of personal awareness.
Demonstrate effective leadership and notice the impact on people around them Reflect upon and review progress Express and articulate feelings in a positive, clear yet assertive manner celebrate success and learn from development opportunities are great listeners and understand others exceptionally well Adapt to changing circumstances, manage stress and show self-control Are optimistic and determined are simply great people to be around.
The root of this low emotional intelligence for not succeeding even with a high intelligence quotient is the quality of parenting values, beliefs and feelings which are acquired in the homes and the first models are the parents. Emotional intelligence therefore is a form of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions to discriminate among them and use this information to guide one’s thinking and action (Meyer, 1990).
The way a Man relates his behaviour and feelings to others and the way he associates with his environment is another factor of emotional intelligence. Indeed, the development of emotional intelligence is an important component of intelligence. It can help individuals’ development. It is therefore necessary for an individual to understand what emotional intelligence is in order for them to become successful in their life.
To date, many companies have focused their selection criteria and training programs on hard skills (e.g., technical expertise, industry knowledge, education) and the assessment of personality traits. Topics including competencies like stress management, assertiveness skills, empathy, and political/social acumen were never measured in the selection process or focused on in training and development programs. In reality, these are critical success factors that should not be dismissed, and have a direct impact on the bottom line.
For example, the Hay Group states one study of 44 Fortune 500 companies found that salespeople with high EQ produced twice the revenue of those with average or below average scores. In another study, technical programmers demonstrating the top 10 percent of emotional intelligence competency were developing software three times faster than those with lower competency. Additional research unearthed the following success stories.
A Fortune 500 company in financial services proved that their high EQ salespeople produced 18 percent more than the lower EQ salespeople. One recent study conducted by a Dallas corporation measured that the productivity difference between their low scoring emotional intelligence employees and their high scoring emotional intelligence employees was 20 times. A Texas-based Fortune 500 Company had utilized personality assessments for candidate selection for years with little results in reducing turnover in their high turnover sales force. After turning to an emotional intelligence-based selection assessment and EQ training and development program, they increased retention by 67 percent in the first year, which they calculated added $32 million to their bottom line in reduced turnover costs and increased sales revenues.
A large metropolitan hospital reduced their critical care nursing turnover from 65 percent to 15 percent within 18 months of implementing an emotional intelligence screening assessment. A community bank that reduced staff by 30 percent due to the sluggish economy assessed the remaining workforce for their emotional intelligence competencies, placed them in the right role for those competencies, and the bank is now producing more with less people. Lastly, through a series of recent studies conducted by ZERORISK HR, Inc., a correlation was found among low emotional intelligence and theft and shrinkage.
One other study in the construction industry yielded results showing workers with low emotional intelligence had a higher likelihood of getting injured while on the job. All of these cases are starting to prove the value of having highly emotionally intelligent employees make up your workforce if you want a competitive advantage in this highly competitive business world.