16. Consider the relationships and contact of European societies with Asia, Africa, and the New World from 1492 to 1914. What are the changes and continuities in these relationships? What did the Europeans want in each area of the world? How was the European trading systems different from the earlier systems involving Dar-Al-Islam? What effects did these contacts have on the Europeans? On the societies contacted? You might want to make a chart of these causes and effects. How did the patterns of world trade change from 1492 to 1914? The Europeans used the power of seas and oceans to control the export of specific products. They had products such as pepper, cinnamon, and nutmeg. They regulated commerce with Asian trading network that stretched from ports of the Red Sea to South China. Many European seafaring nations were involved in South and Southeast Asia and was based on trade.
The European powers struggled to find the most profitable ways to get things that they wanted from Asia. Most of the Europeans went to Asia to find Christian converts instead of personal gain. Also some stayed to live in coastal enclaves, but trade and commercial profits let Europeans explore, fight in wars and have a hard time to live in Asia in nearly the first century of European overseas expansion. Africa also used their African coast to trade with China and the New World. 80 percent of Africans died in middle passage voyage from African to the New World. Many people died in trading because people began getting infected with disease and spread them. Everywhere in West Africa was the region influenced by trans-Atlantic slave trade. The East Coast of Africa traded along the Indian Ocean with many Ottoman Turks. Some continuities is that we use some of the same patterns of trading throughout 1492-1914.
For example, we still use the availability of oceans and seas to trade along the coasts of countries. But there were many changes as well. During the 1800’s and 1900’s, technology became more advanced. This led to easier ways for trading. Africans traded for ivory, gold, and especially slaves, with the New World. The slaves were forced to go to the households to work. Some places that had many slaves are Arabia and many areas of the Middle East. Europeans also took many slaves. Europeans always needed slaves to go work on their plantation colony. The East African coast was the area that supplied the most slaves. They shipped the slaves off to any country that had something in return for the Africans. Europeans established many plantation style colonies on islands such as Mauritius (located in the Indian Ocean) but they always depended on the East African Slave trade.
Slavery became a prominent feature of the east African coast and the slave trade from the interior to these plantations and to the traditional slave markets of the Red Sea kept going till the end of the 19th century. The effect on the Europeans was that they were making many plantations and were able to make a lot of money with the other countries that they were in contact with because they traded their plantation for other expensive goods. Dar al Islam was different from Europe because in order for them to trade their plantation and crops, they had to work on it to make it grow. Unlike the Europeans, they have slaves doing the work for them. After the good results of the Europeans, other countries bought slaves, knowing that they would have more done, and more goods to trade.
17. The industrial revolution is a major concept in terms of the world history. What factors were necessary to have an industrial revolution? Where did it begin? Where did it spread? How did it change patterns of economic, social, and intellectual interaction? What advantages and disadvantages did it bring? Compare the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution of the nineteenth century with those brought by the movements toward Globalization of the twentieth century.. For an industrial revolution to take place Business Leaders, labor sources, natural resources, Inventions & Innovations, and in Britain the 2nd Agricultural Rev, factory systems, economic philosophies, and capitalism + enlightenment ideas combined. The industrial revolution started in Britain with the 2nd agricultural revolution (Enclosure movement and Urbanization). The industrial revolution spread through much of Europe, especially Belgium, France, and Germany as well as Japan and the United States.
Intellectual interactions increased with the spread of new ideas and a lot of new inventions to better life and contribute to the industrial revolution, such as the domestic system, the steam ship and the steam-powered locomotive. Patterns of economic and social interactions also increased by not in a good way, social the government controlled everything that society did and owned most of everything and economically patterns decreased among the population and focused to land owners or factory owners.
Innovations such as the telephone, combustion engine, radio, airplane, the system of interchangeable parts and the assembly line. The advantage was huge money to land owners and factory owners, new technologies making Britain, at the time, the hegemony. The disadvantage was that is cause massive poverty amongst the majority of the population, pollution and families being torn apart. The changes in the Industrial revolution brought great money and power to that country of the time, and eventually led the nation to be prosperous, although globalization now is making the world smaller, giving pollution causing environmental problems and making life economically dependent.
18. Make a list of the ways that the industrialization was related to the Imperialism and to Nationalism. Then illustrate each of the items on your list with examples from the experience of Russia, France, and the United States, Great Britain, the Ottoman Empire and Mexico. * Makes the people work together: In Europe, urbanization occurred and for the domestic system to work, people had to cooperate with each other. * Gave women a little bit of more rights: In Europe, women were allowed to work in factories but they were under horrible conditions. * Increased trade for foreign resources: Europe colonized nations on every other continent in the world to get raw materials. * Influenced ideas: Ideas came such as communism, socialism, neocolonialism, and Marxism
* Brings more technologies: Some technologies that were developed was the flying shuttle which sped up the weaving process in 1733. In 1763, John Hargreaves invented the spinning Jenny which was capable of spinning vast amounts if thread. In 1793, Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin, which allowed massive amounts of cotton to be quickly processed in the Americas, and exported to Europe. Also, the telegraph which was invented in 1837 by Samuel Morse, allowed people to communicate across great distances within seconds. The telephone, which was invented in 1876 by Alexander Graham Bell. Thomas Edison invented the light bulb in 1879. The internal combustion engine was invented by 1885 by Gottlieb Daimler. Marconi Guglielmo invented the radio in 1890s and Orville and Wilbur Wright invented the airplane in 1903. * Helps the people: To all the countries that industrialized, this helped manual labor from the people to convert the labor into machines.
* Rapid shift in economy: All economies boosted because of all the progress it made * Countries engage in war: Countries were getting more powerful and others wanted to be the same. Some examples of wars because of nationalism were World War I and World War II. * Changes in social structure: Throughout history, the wealthy class was small and the poorest class was huge. But industrialism twisted it around, members of the working class saw factory owners gain wealth quickly – at their expense. The owners didn’t inherit their position, but achieved success by exploiting their workers, and the workers knew it. * Rebellions take place: They took place because of change.
* 3 groups of people come about: Conservatives, Moderates, and Radicals. Conservatives don’t want change, Moderates are fine with whatever happens and Radicals want change. * Forces the country to gain a lot of power: the country gains a lot of wealth and tends to have more power and control over other countries created colonies. * Some countries gain independence: Countries in North and South America gain independence like America in 1783, Paraguay in 1811, Uruguay in 1811, Chile in 1826, Argentina in 1816, Ecuador in 1822, Colombia in 1815, and Venezuela in 1821. * Impact on environment: Industrial Revolution created pollution and gobbled up a lot of natural resources 19. Analyze changes in gender and social structure in the following regions: United States, France, China, India, Ottoman Empire/Turkey, and Brazil from 1750 to today. Throughout history the majority of societies were base upon male dominance, a patriarchal society.
Usually this was because back in the stone ages many societies were nomads, or they were societies involved and agriculture and women were not looked at highly. This is because women were expected to stay home and cure for the kids or take care of the house while the males would go out and make sure there is food for the family when they get back and this is what made males more dominant over females knowing that without the males getting food survival would be extremely tough. However throughout time some societies became less agricultural such as the United States throughout times such as during World War I.
During the war all the men were sent off to serve and fight for their country and the only people back home were females and eventually females started to run there own business and gain some sort of importance and if it weren’t for them the United States would’ve been in a completely different situation when the men returned home from war. In spite of the males having all the dominance over females when they returned home from war they expected women to give up what they have accomplished and hand it over to the men. Of course it all seemed unfair to the women but there was not too much they could do, but this is how the societies change socially. The geography and society situations usually reflect upon the social structures within empires, kingdoms, countries etc.
20. Make a chart outlining the content, strengths, effects, and limitations of each of the following intellectual systems of thought:
Adam Smith – The wealth of Nations
Karl Marx – The communist Manifesto
Isaac Newton – The Principia
Explain why each of these works is the product of Western and Enlightment thinking.
Intellectual systems:| Content:| Strength:| Effects:| Limitations:| Adam Smith- “The wealth of Nations”| Private ownership| Economic prosperity and fairness| A free market system| Governments were removed entirely from regulation (laissez-faire capitalism)| Karl Marx- “The communist Manifesto”| Working class could eventually revolt and take over means of production| Helped better the conditions of the workers and the amount of hours they worked
| In England a group of workers called luddites destroyed equipment in the factories in the middle of the night to protest working conditions and pitiful wages| All the instruments of power- the government, the courts, the police, the church-were on the side of the rich against poor| Isaac Newton- “The Principia”| Where he invented calculus| Proved the theories of Copernicus, Galileo, Bacon, and others| Proved that the sun is the center of the universe| Helps scientists prove experiments but doesn’t necessarily mean or give the right answer |
Each of these works is the product of Western and Enlightenment thinking as the Age of Enlightenment refers to a period of time in Western culture and philosophy where reason was advocated as the best and surest way to obtain the truth.