The United States Congress is made out of two markedly different, but coequal chambers, the senate and the House of Representatives. Although the senate and the house both exist within the same legislative institution, but they each has developed certain distinctive features that clearly distinguish life on one end of Capitol Hill from conditions on the other. The Senate wing is on the north side of the Capitol building, and the House wing is on the south side.
The central difference between the House of Representatives and the senate is the size. The House is much lager then the Senate. The House has 435 voting members plus delegates from the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, and the Virgin Islands. The Senate only has 100 members. Members in the house are chosen from local districts, they are originally elected by voters and they have a two-year term. Members in the senate are chosen from an entire state, they are originally elected by state legislatures and they have a six-year term.
And since the House is a lot bigger then the senate, it also needs a greater number of formal rules to govern activity in the House, and it has limited debate. In the senate, they have fewer rules and restrictions, but they normally permit extended debate on all issues that arise before it. In the House, representatives generally achieve less prestige and less individual notice; in the senate, members achieve more prestige and more media attention, especially those who openly express presidential ambitions are better able to gain media exposure. The senate members also have the power to advise the president on, and to consent to, presidential appointments and treaties; the House representatives only has power to originates bills for raising revenues. Moreover, member in the senate are usually national leadership and have less party loyalty; and which the House members are local or narrow leadership and they tent to have more partisan.
The president’s roles include both formal and informal duties. The president’s roles include both formal and informal duties. The president is chief of state, chief executive, commander in chief, chief diplomat, chief legislator, and party chief. As chief of state, the president is ceremonial head of the government. As chief executive, the president is bound to enforce the acts of Congress, the judgments of the federal courts, and treaties. The chief executive has the power of appointment and the power to grant reprieves and pardons. As commander in chief, the president is the ultimate decision maker in military matters.
As chief diplomat, the president recognizes foreign governments, negotiates treaties, signs agreements, and nominates and receives ambassadors. The role of chief legislator includes recommending legislation to Congress, lobbying for the legislation, approving laws, and exercising the veto power. The president also has statutory powers written into law by Congress. The president is also leader of his or her political party. Presidents use their power to persuade and their access to the media to fulfill this function. Presidents have a variety of special powers not available to other branches of the government. These include emergency power, executive power, executive privilege, and impoundment of funds.