Introduction The hotel and restaurant management is the world’s largest industry and offers unrivalled opportunities for an exciting and rewarding career, though the outlook for employment in this industry is rapidly growing. With the increasing demand for highly skilled hospitality managers there has never been a better time to gain a qualification in this dynamic global industry. The Hotel and Restaurant Management program responds to this challenge with a comprehensive blend of practical and theoretical courses driven by hotel industry.
The HRM curriculum combines courses in business administration, communications, quantitative studies, the humanities and the sciences, with in-depth courses in foods, foodservice systems management, hotel operations and human resource management to provide a strong base for professional success. On the recent enrollment at Laguna State Polytechnic University SPCC, students of Hotel and Restaurant Management course gradually increased, this shows that many students are giving interest in the course.
Based on the previous research, the course is now being recognized as one of the top courses to be taken in the country. One of the benefits of choosing this course is that the student can learn about knowing the right managerial skills in handling a Hotel and Restaurant and also learning about the different kinds of foods that they can cook. Though this course is not only to learn about cooking, one should’ve studied culinary arts for that, but primarily to have the knowledge, skills, and the right preparations for a student to be ready to handle supervisory and management positions in hospitality management.
For students to be trained under an instructor in a practical setting of a restaurant or any other similar establishment, the right mindset and attitude must be present. The performance of a student in managing even just a small business serves as an enhancement of their knowledge and skills. It works as a substantial internship for future work and management. One of the factors in choosing the course, is being chosen and going out of the country to train and learn more about the industry that they have chosen.
The experience that the students gain will be a valuable asset in finding a job or taking up Master’s Degree. The importance of choosing Hotel and Restaurant Management course is it will be the building blocks for the success in the future. Students need to be more attentive and interested in this course because it will help them to be prepared for their job in the future. Through studying this course students will become an effective and competent manager in the future.
They will be prepared to take what they’ve learn here and go forward to undertake successful management roles within any of the hospitality sectors, namely, hotels, restaurants resorts and clubs. This course will enable freshmen student to advance their career to senior level so they can operate effectively at a strategic level in this increasingly competitive sector. While learning how to apply theory to complex problems, they will also gain an advanced understanding of business disciplines, including marketing, human resources, finance and operations management on an international level.
Understanding how to be a leader, how to work with people and how to increase profits in hospitality businesses are all vital skills, and will be studied through the course. Special emphasis will be placed on preparing students for the trends in globalization which will be prevalent in tomorrow’s hospitality industry. Hotel and Restaurant students will acquire the competencies they need to be industry leaders in the competitive hotel and restaurant business environment.
In order for them to achieve success in this industry, they need to have the ability to get along with all kinds of people under all kinds of conditions. the people they must deal with in this industry, guest and employees alike, vary widely in terms of education, personal experience, intelligence, business background, nationality, and personal characteristics. To succeed in the hotel industry, they must be broadminded, tolerant, understanding, and humane.
It is important to keep in mind that as a future hotelier, they will regularly be dealing with many different temperaments in various situations. Any person contemplating a career in the hotel industry should be neat, have a flair for detail, and be willing to be of service to others. This last requirement is not a catchall phrase; it embodies the ability to listen attentively, have ready smile, and maintain a reserved manner. Therefore, anyone with an uncontrollable temper or an inbred shyness must try to overcome these defects to have a successful career in the hotel industry.
The early development of the concern among the HRM students should not perish in their minds to defeat the stress that they are facing. It’s obvious that first year of education faces a trouble that maybe foreign to their mind and new to their knowledge. In this case, these challenges could be the burden which can pull them out of the school without completing their studies, such as; the choice of college course, academic problem, students schedule and of course the environmental adjustments.
But the serious case that arises in some observation is that, the focus they have in the first years of their study is not that intense. Therefore, the students must make their way to create a new passage to accelerate in their subject matter. The HRM graduates believe that this will be a broad base of management and technical skills which enable them to immediately be productive in the workplace. This study intended to state the perceived difficulties met by freshmen HRM students of LSPU and their achievements in school.
Direct and indirect sources of evidence of student performance will be conducted and quantify to find out the freshmen sentiments and therefore provide the most probable solutions that will reflect effective results. Background of the Study The purpose of the study is to determine the difficulties of 1st year HRM students’ and the impact of college adjustments. The difficulties face by first year student found to be the choice of college course, school curriculum, schedule, socializing with new people, as well as the environmental adjustments.
Based on the previous research, it found that the major difficulties face by majority of the students is choice of college course, where in many freshmen choose HRM course because they think that it is easy and a fast way to graduate because some of the mindset of the students are just to graduate and get a job like being a waiter or bartender, without thinking that the knowledge that they learned wasn’t put into good use and disregarding their personal interest that lead them into difficulties.
This was followed by the academic problems such as difficult to understand well the teacher’s lectures. However many first year students encounter difficulties in organizing their selves to do individual studies as they easily give into distractions. For example some first year students loiter around avoiding lectures and tutorials thus coming to school with different intensions. And also their time management involves doing the right thing at the right time. First year students in particular tend to misuse the time that is given.
The difficulties to attend class as early as 7 in the morning. Managing time effortlessly can make the difference between a successful student and one who is defeated by stress. Other than that, students also faced health problems where they have difficulty in taking care of their health. One study identified the difficulties of the first year students and pointing out that the main cause of these problems is a big amount of stress during their life a student. A HRM student, actually in a broad sense, all of the students’ faces some series of challenges and stressors.
But more likely, the HRM students are the one who are in the center of experiencing stress, especially the first year students. The stress maybe came from their friends, professors, colleagues, family or relatives, and even relationships and competition. Every day, students doesn’t only needs a brain to do a workload and be happy to grab it fast but they also founding certain emotions in dealing with the other people and not always facing the thick pages of a book. HRM students experience stress severe enough to induce mental health problems such as anxiety and depression.
The source of the stress in HRM students is related in their learning experience and the programs that they enrolled into. Difficulties are a challenge to freshmen in achieving academic excellence. The continuous activities making the students accumulated the burnout behaviors which are characterized by reduction in their performance. And just like the domino effect, everything else follows. The students are destined to feel slight health failure, physical illness and emotional stress.
There is also physical and psychological symptoms of stress that are present in every HRM students that suffered pressure such as irritability, inability to concentrate, insomnia, depression, muscular tension and aches, palpitations, lack of appetite and others. But actually, not all the case of a HRM student finds a negative response on the stress factor. There is the existence of the arousal that at some point increases and improves the performance. Those difficulties among first year students should be given a serious attention as a serious adjustment problem could lead to student’s failure to complete their studies.
This study may increase the knowledge on how they can interact and motivate themselves and adapt to the changes that would be necessary for their growth and development. Theoretical Framework According to Stephen Pravel’s Theory of Catastrophic Misinterpretation which explain that both educational researchers and experienced teachers develop what might be called theories of difficulty. A strong theory of difficulty identifies learners’ characteristic trouble spots for a particular area of instruction and includes some causal analysis of why they occur toward improved teaching and learning.
The literature on learning and development offers numerous ways of understanding conceptual difficulties, as well as recognizing problems of ritualized knowledge, inert knowledge, knowledge too foreign for learners to engage it readily, and tacit knowledge, the partly unconscious nature of which poses learning challenges. In a number of studies, a strong theory of difficulty has led to improved learning. In everyday teaching, teachers’ response to recurrent difficulties may fall short. One not uncommon reaction is to blame the learners’ weaknesses and simply keep teaching in the same way.
Another better reaction is to ‘teach harder’; lavishing more time and attention on characteristic difficulties without any causal analysis of what makes them problematic. Most effective is to ‘teach smarter’ based on a causal analysis refined through experience. The construction of informal theories of difficulty is an important part of the craft of teaching. He also discusses motivation from the perspective of contextual factors and school socialization processes that have the potential to influence student motivation and subsequent performance.
In this regard, teachers’ instructional practices and interpersonal relationships with students are highlighted as potentially powerful factors influencing student motivation and performance. This theory will also serve as determinant of this study. Through the use of both direct and indirect sources of evidence of student performance, results from assessment guide collective actions for, among others, curricular change, better learning opportunities for students, improvement of teaching, and more effective academic support services.
That is, the result which will be posted at the end of the study and shall be well classified to determine whether or not freshmen students need to worry and confused in pursuing HRM and in the end it will help them to achieve higher education and scholastic achievements, and give them an advantage in the job market and the credibility they need to achieve their career in hospitality.
The researchers presented a research paradigm of the difficulties and achievements of freshmen college students of Laguna State Polytechnic University it showed the personal profile of the freshmen college students, the profile included the age, gender, civil status and family income. Factors under the difficulties by freshmen are the choice of college course, academic problem, schedule, and environmental adjustment. While in the achievement is measured by the scholastic, extra-curricular and the exposure into hospitality industry. Research Paradigm
Figure 1 Achievements in School of the respondents a. Scholastic b. Extra-Curricular c. Exposure into Hospitality Industry| Independent Variable Dependent Variable Respondents’ Profile a. Age b. Gender c. Civil status d. Family IncomePerceived Difficulties of the respondents a. Choice of College Course b. Academic Problem c. Schedule d. Environmental Adjustment| The Figure 1 shows the relationship between the independent variables the dependent variable.
Statement of the Problem The objective of the study is to determine the difficulties met by first year HRM students in Laguna State Polytechnic University and how they overcome it by achieving something in school. This study is significant to the students of Laguna State Polytechnic University SPCC, These may served as their guide for the readers and future researchers who will also have a relative topic, in order to provide them idea and knowledge in handling different problems encountered in hotel and restaurant course. And provide source of information and also to motivate them to improve their performance in order to achieve something in school.
Specifically, it seeks to answer the following questions: 1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of: a. Age, b. Gender, c. Civil Status and d. Family Income? 2. What are the difficulties met by first year HRM students as perceived by themselves? a. Choice of College Course, b. Academic Problem, c. Schedule and d. Environmental Adjustment? 3. What are the achievements of first year HRM students? a. Scholastic, b. Extra-Curricular and c. Exposure into Hospitality Industry? 4. Do the perceived difficulties of the first year HRM students relate significantly to their achievement?
Hypothesis * There is no significant relationship between the perceived difficulties of the first year student to their achievements in school. Significance of the Study The results of this study have relevance to the following: School and administration. The findings of the study can give more information to the school and administration about the students for them to be aware in understanding the difficulties faced by the students to provide good social environment that help students easily to adjust socially that can improve their academic achievements in school. Teachers.
This study will provide a better understanding about difficulties and achievements of the students and to guide them how the students be at ease to its environment and exhibits the potential of the students. Respondents. This study will encourage all HRM students, especially to the first year students to face their difficulties and learn to overcome it. And this would be a great help for them to analyze their weak point in studies and how they will optimize them. Though they suffering into difficulties they can still motivate themselves to pursue their course and received scholastic achievements.
Parents. The result of this study may also serve as a guide to parents on how they will guide and help their son and daughter with regards to their difficulties and achievements in school and by understanding the anxiety felt by their children. Researchers. This study may provide necessary information in order to answer their questions and can contribute to other future researchers. Future Researcher. The findings of this study can assist them as their point of reference in continuing the study of relationship of difficulties and achievements of students in school. Scope and limitation.
The coverage of this study is to determine the degree of difficulties among first year HRM students and their scholastic achievements in Laguna State Polytechnic University San Pablo City Campus. The covered period for this study starts from 2011 up to 2012. Research will only be focused on the perceived difficulties met by first year HRM student and their achievement in school and not from other related topics. Definition of Terms The researchers defined the terms used in the study, operationally and functionally. Achievement. The attainment of students to overcome their fears and difficulties by aiming their goals.
Academic Problem. anxiety of the students related to their academic difficulties that is hard to overcome Choice of College Course. This is the choice of the incoming college students to know or to pursue what they want in the future Difficulty. this is the anxiety faced about the students about their task or fears. Environmental Adjustment. this is how the freshmen students adopt changes in their new environment Extra- Curricular. one way on how students get a good grades and this is also way of the students how to use their skills HRM.
A course where the students can enhance their skills in cooking, housekeeping, bartending, hotel operation, restaurant operation and management Master’s Degree. is an academic degree granted to individuals who have undergone study demonstrating a mastery or high-order overview of a specific field of study. Perception. this is how the students interpret or see different things about the same situation Schedule. Part of the class program that the student oblique to follow it Scholastic. students that adheres to a method or subtitles of the school Chapter II REVIEW OF RELATED STUDIES AND LITERATURE.
A review of related literature and studies about the difficulties and achievements of freshmen HRM students who came from Laguna State Polytechnic University is presented in this chapter. This chapter provides information on underlying theories, guidelines and concepts of value to this research. The researchers gathered literature and studies from different authors of book from foreign and local for better understanding of the problem. Different related literature presents different content with regards the variable that is used in the study.
According to Bobby Quitan, (2006) the interpersonal influences of others, such as parents and peers, have been involved in students’ aspirations to attend college. Students whose parents begin to encourage them to consider college early in their educational career are more likely to attend college. Quitan also stated that it have found that parental encouragement to attend college has a direct effect on college attendance. Students who have friends interested in attending college are more likely to pursue an undergraduate degree as well. Peers who plan to pursue a college degree positively reinforce college choice decisions.
The college choice process refers to the factors that influence applicants when deciding which colleges to apply to and what factors to consider when deciding which of the colleges or universities they have been admitted to they wish to attend In order to gain a better understanding of this process, it was necessary to examine the stages that college applicants go through during the college selection process. The author said that there are three main stages of these models are predisposition, search and choice. The first stage of the college selection process in most models is predisposition.
Quitan also refer to this stage as the college aspiration formation stage. This stage is characterized by students determining whether they would like to attend college. During this stage, certain background characteristics influence students. These influences include socioeconomic status, race, sex, ability, achievement, attitudes, and educational background of parents and peers. The socioeconomic status of a student can open doors of access to certain students or limit their ability to even consider attending college. Students with high socioeconomic status are more likely to go on to college than students with low socioeconomic status.
The author also described three basic approaches that have been used to study the college selection process; social psychological studies, economic studies and sociological status attainment studies. All three approaches focus on decision-making influences. The first approach to the college selection process, social psychological studies, examines three main factors. The first factor incorporates the impact of the academic program that the student chooses, the social climate of the campus, the cost and location of the college, and the influence that other students have on the student’s college choice.
The second factor is the student’s assessment of how they fit into the institution they have chosen. The third factor is the cognitive stages of college choice. The second approach includes economic studies that examine college choice. The author view college choice as an investment decision for the student. (Bobby Quitan, 2006). According to Ronan S. Estoque, Rogelyo G. Dela Cruz, Marinel Ivy P. Tan-Pichay (2006) the academic reputations of the university are factors that influence the students’ decisions to attend college. A large number of students enter their undergraduate institution undecided on an academic
major. The students are attracted to institutions that can provide them with a wide variety of academic majors from which to choose. The academic reputation of an institution can also be very important to the students. They expect to acquire knowledge and skills in a particular field so they will be marketable for the jobs they want to pursue. Attending a college that has an excellent reputation for a specific academic program such as HRM or business will assist them in achieving their goal. Students also see academic reputation as leading to more job opportunities for them.
Academic issues are just one group of factors that have an effect on the success of a student at a particular institution. Other factors within the institution may affect the student as well. These factors may be related to the social climate at a university and may create issues for students when selecting a college course. The author view on what generic competencies such as analytical thinking, ability and willingness to learn, self-confidence, relationship building was sought in order to compare these with the students’ views.
The students should also be aware of the needs and be able to relate their abilities to those required by employers. If students do not see the need or importance, the likelihood of higher education institutions managing to convince students to instill these, will be difficult by enhancing their skills, competencies, personal attributes, enthusiasm, self-confidence, and knowledge that are needed in the work place, makes graduates more employable and likely to be successful in their chosen careers, which benefits themselves, the workforce, the community and the economy.
During this time, through the guidance of the mentor and the opportunity to actually work in a work environment the students will learn how to work with people, develop communication skills and learn how to get things done Lani Florian, (2007), said that the extracurricular activities play an important role in today’s secondary education programs. When one considers the large number of activities available, one realizes the diversity of the programs. Included are athletics, publications, student government, fine arts, academic clubs, service organizations, and special interest activities.
There has been a considerable amount of studying the relationship between student involvement in activities and student academic achievement. Although a positive correlation has been shown in many of these studies, there is still a fierce battle among educators concerning the need for extracurricular activities. Two positions appear to be prevalent in today’s academic community. These are referred to as either the academic or developmental perspective. The academic perspective considers extracurricular activities as purely leisure and not part of the purpose of schools.
The developmental perspective considers extracurricular activities necessary to the total development of the student in today’s schools. Even those activities that don’t require loss of classroom time are perceived to take away study time. These educators support cutting or eliminating activities for budgetary reasons. Educators who believe in the developmental perspective see activities as an extension of the educational program. Activities allow students to develop skills such as leadership, sportsmanship, self-discipline, self-confidence, and the ability to handle competitive situations.
Extra-curricular activities offer an opportunity to interact in ways that allow the previously mentioned skills to blossom. The developmental minded believe that many of these skills would be impossible or very difficult to develop in a classroom setting. Participation in extracurricular activities is positively associated with many student characteristics. Participation is associated with higher levels of self-esteem. Participation is associated with lower delinquencyi’absenteeism rates the academic perspective theory considers extra-curricular activities as purely leisure and not part of the purpose of schools.
Those educators that profess to the academic development theory argue that work is a deterrent to academic achievement. The author said that the participation in extracurricular activity has a small but consistently positive effect on academic achievement. Ethel Magalona, M. A. , Evelyn Salting-Sadsad, Ph. D, (2008), said that the differential scholastic achievement of students has been and is still a source of concern and research interest to educators, government and parents. This is so because of the great importance that education has on the national development of the country.
All over the country, there is a consensus of opinion about the fallen standard of education. Poor academic performance is a performance that is adjudged by the examinee/tested and some other significant as falling below an expected standard. A person’s educational is closely linked to their life chances, income, and well being. The interpretation of the expected or desired standard is better appreciated from the perpetual cognitive ability of the valuator of the performance. The evaluator or assessor can therefore give different interpretations depending on some factors.
Therefore, it is important to have a clear understanding of what benefits or hinders one’s educational attainment. Raising Academic Achievement narrowed the focus to what the program evaluations had to say about one set of outcomes. The current volume narrows the focus further to academic outcomes for minority students. Yet, within this academic achievement category, the focus is deep, seeking outcomes along an optimal pathway of academic achievement we wish all young people could take.
It is the hope that all young people will attend school, arrive on time, go to all classes read at grade level or above do well in the sciences, mathematics and technology persist to high school graduation be appropriately identified and served for any special needs obtain good grades have access to and do well in academically challenging courses have opportunities to apply their knowledge while in school (through work-based learning or service-learning)
Follow a coherent course sequence leading to postsecondary education take standardized and college entrance exams and obtain competitive scores make thoughtful guided decisions about college attendance and financing enroll in college have no need for remedial education in college sustain academic achievement and good grades in college sustain financial aid sustain college enrollment graduate from college and successfully pursue graduate/professional school degrees or fulfilling work in their chosen career.
Information was sought for each level of educational achievement along this pathway. Information was also sought in the youth development literature about youth that are not in school, but there was little data on academic achievement to be found here.
There was however, a great deal of writing on the topics of minority over-representation in special education, misidentification for special education, underrepresentation in gifted and talented programs, Advanced Placement, Honors and other advanced classes, and over-representation in the juvenile justice and adult penal systems. Derect Chadee, (2011), said that the social atmosphere of a campus can affect students in various ways.
The author said that the students experience difficulty adjusting to an environment that is culturally different to what they have been comfortable with at their high schools. Some students experience culture shock when attending an institution where they are in the minority and they have not been accustomed to this type of atmosphere before. The author said the importance of living environment, social support and making meaningful relationship connections have on students’ overall adjustment to the college environment.
Institutions that provide opportunities for not only academic support, but also social and personal support increase their retention rates. The author suggested that relationships and making meaningful connections are important for students to adjust to the college environment. Students who have been able to establish bonds in their new environment adjusted better than students who were isolated and not as successful in establishing new friendships and relationships. The theory of attachment has been used to explain the importance of emotional bonds and healthy adjustment. Healthy individuals tend to have secure attachments to parents, guardians, and significant others in their lives.
Individuals with secure attachments tend to have an easier time transitioning to college than individuals who do not have secure attachments. Relationships with parents may change when students go to college, which can be a difficult transition for all involved, and cause additional stress and pressure on the students as they move through the developmental process and become adults. The process of adjustment can be frustrating and overwhelming for many students, leading to emotional maladjustment and depression which may, in turn, negatively affect college performance. Powers, Clayton W. Barrows, (2006). The high levels of social support buffer individuals from stress.
Attachment theory has emphasized the importance of healthy emotional bonds, and students who are able to create and maintain healthy bonds with others tend to have an easier time adjusting to college. Social adjustment may be just as important as academic adjustment; according to Clayton (2006) the personal adjustment and integration of the social fabric of campus life play a role at least as important as academic factors in student retention.
One way of assisting students in establishing connections is to help them become involved in campus life. Student social adjustment to the college environment has been linked to student involvement in the university and has appeared to be a major factor in a student’s overall adjustment.
The transition to college is difficult for many students and students need support and encouragement to join various organizations and participate in activities to feel like they are a part of the university community. Activities serve not only as a coping mechanism, but also have assisted students in making new friends and finding their place in the university community.
Thus it is only natural that the residence halls would be ideal places to have activities for freshmen and help create a sense of connection to the university. Female students face unique problems adjusting to college. For example, there are more roles and opportunities for women than ever before; however those roles may not be acceptable to their families.