The League of Nations which was established after the First World War (1914-1918) failed to deliver the goods. It was wound up. After the Second World War the major nations of the world felt the need for a similar body to maintain peace in the world and the United Nations Organization came into being. The charter of the U.N.O. was signed on June 26, 1945 and it came into effect from October 24, 1945. The aims and objective of the U.N.O. are:
1. To maintain international peace and security,
2. To development the spirit of cooperation and friendliness among the nations of the world, 3. To promote and encourage respect for human right and fundamental freedoms, 4. To solve international problems of economic, social and cultural character, development of people. The Headquarters of the U.N.O. is at New York. The languages of U.N.O. are English, French, Chinese, Russian, Arabic and Spanish. For all practical purposes, English and French languages alone are used. To become a member of the U.N.O. a country should satisfy the following conditions: 1. Peace loving, willing to accept the aims and objects and rules of this charter and be judged by the U.N.O., as able to carry out these duties, 2. The Security Council must recommend the admission of a new member, 3. The General Assembly must confirm the re4commendation by a two thirds majority vote. General Assembly:
It has at present 184 members. The Assembly has to meet at least once a year. The President is to be elected every year for one year term. Each country can send four members to represent it. It is a legislative body and it can discuss matters relating to conservation of peace, disarmament, economic and social development, use of atomic energy for peaceful purposes, human rights etc. It has also the right to elect non-permanent members to the Security Council, members to Trusteeship Council and Judges to the International Court of Justice. There are seven committees which work under the General Assembly. They are 1. Political, 2. Economic, 3. Social, 4. Trusteeship, 5. Legal, 6. Administration and 7. Special Political Committee. The General Assembly is called the Town Meeting of the world. Security Council:
It is the executive body of the U.N.O. It has 15 members, 5 permanent – U.S.A., U.S.S.R., U.K., France and China and 10 non-permanent members who are elected for 2 years at a time from among the members of the U.N.O. In all crucial matters there is need for 9 members to vote in favour. The 5 permanent members have got the power of veto. If any one of the five countries votes, then the resolution is not carried. The power of ‘veto’ means the power to say ‘No’. The Security Council is the most powerful body of the UNO. The Economic and Social Council has 54 elected members. It deals with international problems relating to economic, social, cultural and humanitarian issue including human rights. The Trusteeship Council consists of 14 elected members, who are entrusted with the well-being of dependent people of Trust Territories. All the 11 original Trust Territories have become independent. The International Court of Justice has 15 judges. Its headquarters is at Hague. It deals with legal aspects of international disputes. The Secretariat of the U.N.O. is at New York. The Secretary General is the head of the Secretariat. He is appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council for a period of 5 years at a time. There are many other agencies of the U.N. dealing with specific issues.
1. Food and Agricultural Organization (F.A.O.)
2. International Labour Organization (L.L.O.)
3. World Health Organization (W.H.O.)
4. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
5. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (I.R.D.B.) of World Bank.
6. International Finance Corporation (I.F.C.)
7. International Telecommunications Union (I.T.U.)
8. World Meteorological Organization (W.M.O.)
9. International Civil Aviation Organization (I.C.A.O.)
10. United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF)
11. International Atomic Energy Agency (I.A.E.A.)
12. Technical Assistance Administration (T.A.A.)
13. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP)
14. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (ESCAP). There are many other minor organizations also.
The U.N. is to be remembered for its declaration on human rights. The U.N. took shape in 1945 and has completed 55 years. In its existence of 55 years it has solved many international problems peacefully. Some of them are: 1. The Apartheid Policy of South Africa, 2. The Israel – Palestine conflict and 3. Iraq-Kuwait conflict to mention a few. It has rescued so many suffering children in Sudan. The U.N.I.E.F. and W.H.O. are effective in their battles against epidemics. It has ended the cold war between the U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. and thus paved the way for world peace. The I.R.D.B. and World Bank have liberally come forward to help developing countries and underdeveloped countries to improve their economic conditions. The U.N. is the last hope of mankind to avoid a Third World War based on nuclear power. October 24 of every year is celebrated as the U.N.O. Day throughout the world. The U.N. has become a subject of study in all schools throughout the world. All this may lead to world citizenship, and world government.
UNO stands for United Nations Organisation. It is the world body which came into existence on October 24, 1945 at the end of the Second World War. Obviously it was formed to save the world from the catastrophe of another World War. The UNO is successfully doing its work and is trying to maintain mternational peace and security by developing friendly relations among nations. The UNO has six organs to carry out its business. However Security Council is its most important organ. America, Ussia, England, France and China are the five permanent Members of the Security Council. They enjoy the right of veto, which means that the Security Council cannot take any without unanimous consent of these five members. If Any of these members disagrees; the decision cannot be taken as valid. In this council, there are ten temporary members besides its six organs, of the UNO, there are a number of Specialised Agencies of this organisation some of them are the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) the World Health Organisation (WHO), the United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF), the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) etc.
These agencies are charged with specific responsibilities in the fields of health, education, science, trade, culture, human rights etc. The UNO has done valuable work in the political field. During its sixty years of existence it has successfully maintained peace either by avoiding war or by preventing its (War’s) outbreak on different occasions. It prevented the Korean War from turning into World War. It also checked a war that might had taken place between England and Egypt on the issue of Suez Canal. Thus it is only because of the UNO that no Third World War has been broken so far. So far the role of the UNO in the social field in concerned, it has done great work through its various specialised agencies. It has tried to remove poverty and diseases. The World Health Organisation is doing a lot of work for the protection to the health of mankind. UNICEF has rendered useful services to poor and orphan children. The World Bank and IMF have been giving monetary help to the backward countries. UNESCO is doing a wonderful job in the field of education and culture. The UNO has also helped India in the economic, social, educational, cultural and scientific development. It tried to solve the Kashmir issue too but unluckily the issue has not been decided so far. However India has full faith in its ideals. Owing to its services to the world, the UNO is the only hope of the world. It has been doing a great and commendable job to promote peace and prosperity all around the world.
The United Nations Organization was founded in 1945 soon after the end of the Second World War. It is a world body with a large number of sovereign states as its members. Similarly at end of the First World War, the League of Nations was formed. It dominated the world politics for ten or fifteen years after which its influence deteriorated. It could not stand groupism and power politics. Towards the end of the Second World War the need of a world body strong enough to prevent war was actually felt. In 1944 the three war-rime allies- the United States, United Kingdom and the Soviet Union-met at Dumbarton Oaks. They thought of establishing an organization for the maintenance of “International Peace and Security and Co-operation in establishing political, economic and social conditions.” They drew up a number of proposals which latter on formed the basis of the U.N. Charter. In 1945 as-many-as fifty-one nations met at San Francisco and signed the U.N.O. Charter. Thus the United Nations Organization came into being.
The aims of the United Nations Organization are (1) to maintain international peace and security, (2) to develop friendly relations among nations based on respect for equal rights and self-determination of peoples, (3) to promote co-operation economic, social, cultural, and humanitarian fields among nations and promote respect for human rights and fundamental freedom of all. (4) To act as a centre harmonizing the actions of nations in attaining these common ends. The Security Council is the most important organ of the U.N.O. It consists of five permanent members and ten non-permanent members. Britain, France, U.S.A., Russia and China are the five permanent members. The duty of the Security Council is to investigate international disputes and to take suitable action in preventing danger to international peace. In order to make the decisions of Security Council effective, there should be unanimity in five permanent members. If nay one of these permanent members Vetoes the decision, it will be ineffective. The General Assembly is next in importance to the Security Council. Every member nation has got one vote in the Assembly. The Security Council is an executive body whereas the General Assembly performs deliberative functions.
It makes recommendations to the Security Council. A number of other organizations also work under the U.N.O. these are (1) International Court of Justice. (2) International Monetary Fund, (3) The World Bank, (4) Food and Agricultural Organization, (5) united Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), (6) International Labor Organization (ILO), (7) The World Health Organization (WHO), (8) Trusteeship Council, (9) United Nation Development Programme, (10) United Nation Information and Children Education Foundation (UNICEF) etc. The secretariat of the UN draws its staff from the member nations. The head of the Secretariat is called the Secretary General. One should attempt to asses what has really changed since 1945 and what has not changed. The biggest triumph of the U.N. is that it cherished dream of decolonization has become a reality. What has not changed, no the other hand is the hegemony of north over the south. The U.N. is actively involved resolving problems and we as citizens of our wide international community have the responsibility to enlighten ourselves and the people around us all about the significance of the U.N. The struggle for peace, justice and human dignity waged at the U.N. is very much the struggle of all the people of the world. Their support for it can make the repetitive setbacks a growing success. The utility of the U.N.O. is a topic for hot controversy. So far it has dealt with a few problems. It has achieved partial success. In many cases it ahs failed, while in few cases it has succeeded. It is criticized for its failure.
Of course, much can be said on both sides. It is, however, certain that it ahs justified its existence as the most practical instrument for peace ever devised through voluntary co-operation among different nations. So far it has refused to be a tool in the hands of any nation. This is the secret of its strength. It fills the peoples of the world with hope that it will prevent the outbreak of any devastating war. The U.N.O. has held prolonged deliberations on the problem of disbarment. There is a great threat of total annihilation of humanity as a result of third world-war which would be certainly an atomic war. It is high time all the nations decide to give up the use of atomic energy for destructive purposes. National and racial barriers combined with power-politics create great obstacle in the realization of objectives of the U.N. Charter. At present the U.N.O. is dominated by Western Powers, but this state of things is not going to last long. The newly liberated nations of Asia and Africa have come to their own and occupy and adequate position in world politics. The Western Powers have set up a number of regional pacts NATO (north Atlantic Treaty Organization), the SEATO (the South East Asia Treat Organization), the Baghdad Pact etc. These regional pacts undermine the prestige of the U.N.O. and lead to groupism and power politics. The U.N.O. is not a super-star or World Government.
It does not have coercive force. Its strength lies in the co-operation of its members. 541 words essay on United Nations Organization (Uno). The UNO was formed in 1945 after the end of the Second World War. After the failure of League of Nations, the need for the creation of a more powerful world body was felt. The issue was discussed first at Dumbarton Oaks Conference in October, 1944. It was finally put into shape by the delegates of 51 nations at San Francisco on the 26th June, 1945. At present 193 countries of the world are its members. Every year 24th October is celebrated as the U.N. Day throughout the world. The headquarters of the UN are in New York. The UNO is a committee of nations. The original need for a world body to strive and keep peace in the world was felt after the end of the Second World War. Three big leaders of the world, Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin actively worked to form a world organisation. A conference was called at San Francisco which was attended by all the Allied Powers. The Atlantic Charter of World Peace was formed. It was signed in San Francisco. The official languages of the UN are English, French, Chinese, Russian, Arabic and Spanish. The working languages are English and French only. The Security Council is an important organ of the UNO. It has five permanent members—U.S.A., Russia, United Kingdom, France and Nationalist China.
The permanent members have veto power. No resolution can be passed in the Security Council unless these five powers agree, barring abstention. The other units of the UNO are the General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council, the International Court of Justice and Trusteeship Council. Each member nation is represented in the General Assembly. But the Security Council has only 15 members of which the five are permanent and the rest are elected by the General Assembly by rotation. The rest 10 members represent all the continents of the world. The judges of International Court of Justice (ICJ) are appointed by the General Assembly. The headquarters of the ICJ are at The Hague. The UNO shares great responsibilities without having equally great powers. It has done a solid job in Korea, Indo-China, Suez and the Congo in preventing major international conflicts and maintaining peace and order in the afflicted countries.
The biggest achievement of the United Nations since its existence is that it has prevented the repetition of the holocaust of Second World War. It has successfully intervened in regional and global conflicts to stop the outbreak of another war. The Indo-China War, The Arab- Israel War and the superpower confrontation in Cuba in 1961 bear ample testimony to the significant role played by the r United Nations in its peace-keeping efforts. Indian troops have played a great part in all these conflicts and clashes. The UNO is also concerned with the welfare of humanity. It is trying to give man freedom from ignorance and disease also. Various UN agencies such as UNESCO and ILO, have contributed a good deal in improving the lot of the worlds unprivileged. The UNHRC has brought relief and peace to millions of displaced people. There should be no interference in the working of this world body. It is the responsibility of the world leaders to maintain its sanity. It needs to be made more powerful.