1.1 Explain the importance of recognising the centrality of the individual rather than the disability It is important you recognise the individuality of the person to help boost their confidence and self-esteem and make sure you aren’t labelling them. If you were to label them you would forget their individuality and start thinking they cant do something because of their disability.
1.2 Explain the importance of an assessment being person-centred The level of care a person needs or the type of care they require varies from person-to-person. All assessments should be done with a person-centred approach to agree on a care plan made around the individual and their needs. Just because two people share the same disability this does not mean they require exactly the same level of care and support, so working with a person-centred approach will enable you to identify their individual needs.
1.3 Compare the difference in outcomes that may occur between focusing on an individuals strengths and aspirations rather than their needs only An individual with a disability may find it difficult to do day-to-day things such as wash or dress and will need some support. It is important you also help an individual recognise their strengths to boost confidence and self-esteem as being unable to do simple tasks can affect a persons self-esteem. Having a disability should not determine whether or not their aspirations can be met but careful thinking about how you can help to achieve it.
Understand the concept of physical disability
2.1 Define the term physical disability Physical disability can be defined as “a physical or mental impairment which has substantial and long-term adverse effect on a person’s ability to carry out day-to-day activities”
2.2 Describe the following terminology used in relation to physical disability: Congenital: Congenital can include cerebral palsy, cystic fibrosis, spina bifida, congenital heart conditions, muscular dystrophy, congenital hip disorder Acquired- Acquired disabilities can include arthritis, rheumatism, cardiac conditions, pulmonary conditions from work conditions or smoking eg emphysema, pulmonary fibrosis Neurological- Neurological can include multiple sclerosis, parkinson’s disease or stroke.
2.3 Compare a congenital disability with a neurological disability, including causes A person with a congenital disability has always had their disability but a person with a neurological disability as had theirs gradually develop. For example a congenital disability such as cerebral palsy is a condition they would be born with where as a condition such as parkinsons disease is something that would develop with age leading to a diagnosis and treatment plan,
2.4 Explain the emotional impact of a progressive disability on the individual Being diagnosed with a progressive disability is a lot for an individual to take. They have to try and accept that changes are going to happen to them physically and that are out of their control. Disabilities such as Parkinsons disease will effect their use of hands effectively as their muscles stiffen and along with the shaking/tremor makes it difficult to complete just normal tasks such as fastening their button cuffs. Gradually being unable to do things they have always been able to achieve can cause many emotional feelings such as frustration leading to anger at the inability to do things and having to accept they now need help.
2.5 Compare the different impacts on individuals that congenital and progressive can have People believe that those born with a congenital disability are ok as they have always had it so therefore will not know the difference, this is not the case. Those born with a disability may ask the question “why me?”. They will feel they have missed out and although a lot can be done to help meet aspirations there are some things they may never be able to achieve. Those with a progressive disability need to try their best to accept that their abilities at doing things are going to change and they need to forward plan for this happening, this however will not help with the impact on their lives it is going to make. They will need support from family/carers to help dress/wash, this will effect their confidence and self-esteem and dignity, its vitally important you as carers understand the emotional impact it will have on them as well as the emotional one.
Understand the impact of living with a disability within society
3.1 Describe environmental and social barriers that can have a disabling effect on an individual with a physical disability For someone with a physical disability and for example wheelchair bound they have to plan outings carefully to ensure where they are going has wheelchair access. Wanting to go somewhere then realising they are unable to get in a building or have appropriate toileting facilities would be extremely frustrating and upsetting for the individual. Many places now have adapted well for those with disabilities and have for example opened up corridors and made slops for those using physical aids such as sticks, frames and wheelchairs enabling those with disabilities able to join in with social events with others.
3.2 Analyse the socio-economic effects of physical disability on an individual Having a physical disability may effect a persons ability to work and therefore they would need income support and “out of work” benefits to help them live. In many cases individual’s may be intellectually trained as an accountant for example so able to work from home therefore being able to earn a wage.
3.3 Explain the changes that have occurred in society as a result of disability legislation Changes in society have enabled those with disabilities to go out and find work without being discriminated against. It has allowed changes to be made to the environments to better accommodate those with disabilities and for example using walking aids or wheelchairs, installation of lifts and slopes instead of steps. Those with disabilities have the same equal right as those without.
3.4 Analyse the extent of improvements for the individual as a result of disability legislation Legislation has provided equal rights in services, work and mobility access. Having a disability cannot be used to disadvantage an individual so giving them more choice and more rights.
3.5 Explain the effects of physical disability on an individual’s life choice Having a disability causes restrictions to an individual’s life and sometimes this will hinder what they are able to do. This can be quite damaging to a persons self-esteem and confidence. Decisions such as “do I need help with day-to-day things such as good hygiene?” would need to be made and this can effect their confidence as they may feel they are losing their dignity. The way in which they wanted to live or even where, may change to adapt better to their needs such as living on a ground floor with slopes instead of steps.
3.6 Explain how attitudes either promote a positive or negative perception of disability Some people look at the disability instead of the person. They look at their restrictions and lack of ability at doing certain things rather than working out a way to enable achievements. A positive approach helps the individual to achieve goals and helps to boost their confidence and self-belief. Having a disability should never define a person, the disability should be by-passed and the person looked at for who they are.
Understand the importance of promoting inclusion and independence
4.1 Explain the importance of independence and inclusion for individual’s with physical disabilities For those with physical disabilities they already require some level of care or support, it is vitally important encouragement is given to maintain as much independence as possible. Independence in some people is all they have so its important you help to maintain in. Inclusion is something that should always be implemented. Someone with a physical disability is no different to anyone else and should be given the same rights and opportunities regardless of wheelchairs, frames ect.
4.2 Analyse ways that inclusion and independence can be promoted Ways you can promote inclusion and independence include: Adapting the environment Altering ways things are done Changing a route, avoid obstacles
4.3 Explain the importance of the individual having control of choices and decisions We all have the right to make our own choices and decisions. It is the care workers responsibility to accept and respect the individual’s choice whether they agree or not. Just because a person has a disability does not mean they are capable of making their own choices in life. Having a disability already makes things a little more difficult for people so having the control of their choices and decisions is sometimes all they have. Good communication and working in a person-centred way is the key to enable the individual’s are all happy.
4.4 Analyse the importance of positive risk-taking for the individual’s with physical disabilities Just because we support someone does not give us the right to tell an individual what they can/cannot do. Positive risk-taking is ok as long as a risk assessment is done and the individual is fully aware of any potential consequences to what they plan on doing.
4.5 Explain how to encourage the individual to take positive risks while maintaining safety It is important the individual is encouraged and knows that their disability is not a hindrance. As long as “positive risks” are achievable and assessed. By encouraging positive risks you will in tern promote confidence and self-esteem.
4.6 Explain strategies you may use to challenge stereotypes, prejudicial or discriminatory attitudes Although in an ideal world stereotypes, prejudicial or discriminatory attitudes wouldn’t exist but unfortunately they do. If in a working environment I was witness to it I would report it to my manager and suggest further training is needed and just offer as much support professionally to that individual as I could. When out in public it is very hard to address the matter as I myself would want to maintain the individuals dignity and maintain professional. Obviously if it was on a walkway or in a shop then I would inform my manager and see about a complaint to change is put in.