Unit 022 Understand Child and Young Person Development
(1 – a,b,c,d)
Children and young peoples development can be influenced by a range of personal factors. If a child has a disability it may prevent the child from developing in one or more areas, they may feel excluded and maybe have not got enough support to promote development. If a child has learning difficulties they will struggle to develop as it may take them longer to understand different things. A child’s health can also be a major factor of their development, they need the correct diet, may be stressed of their home living conditions can also affect their development. Sensory impairment can also affect children as they may not be able to afford the resources they need to promote development such as glasses.
Children and young peoples development can be influenced by a range of external factors. Poverty and deprivation can affect a child’s development as they mightn’t be getting the same resources as another child as they cant afford them. Children now a days play on play stations and other computing games and the children in the less well off families cant afford these toys and the child may start to feel left out and deprived and excluded from other boys and girls who can afford these toys.
Family environment and background of the child is another factor, if the child has a family that may be going through a break up or a single parent family may affect their development and also the childs background, if they have seen other family members not doing well in school or with friends they may think this is what is supposed to happen. A child needs to make personal choices but if they make the wrong one depending on friends and family they may affect their own development. Education will impact on a childs development, if the child is getting extra curricular activities and getting good education they are promoting their development.
The theories of development such as social learning by one theorist called Albert Bandura states that children learn by observing the main people in their life, how they behave and the child will imitate them. A child will repeat the behaviours they have seen if it is awarded with attention or praise. The people a child will copy would be parents/carers/siblings or friends. Another theory of behavioural developmet by B.F Skinner states that if the main carers in a childs life implemented behavioural modifications, the children would learn the correct way to behave.
In child care settings staff promote this by praising and rewarding good behaviours and giving time out and no attention to naughty behaviour. But this will only work if it is followed through at the childs home as well. Social pedagogy is how the children in my setting learn and develop their skills. They can have free play with their friends outside on the play trails or playing football or cricket. Inside the children can sit down and play monopoly that anybody can join in if they like therefore there is no child feeling pressurised into playing but can watch and learn how to play.
(1,) in my setting we monitor childrens development by using different methods such as assessments and observations. Here I would look at the childs record which will tell me their academic attainment or intellectual development. If we have a concern for a childs development we will be very observant of this child and make a record of anything we feel relevant or important and let my boss know who will then speak to the childs parents/carers. We compare these findings against the expected norms and milestones for the childs age and using feedback from the parents if there has been any concerns from home, and my boss and the family will take further action if needed. We observe the children in both watching them but talking to them and listening to anything they want to talk about.
Reasons why childrens development may not follow the expected pattern may include many different factors such as disability. If the child has a disability but we still see changes then the disability may becoming worse as the child gets older for e.g learning difficulties, the child may be struggling with learing new skills in school. As we do homeworks in my setting we would take a note that that child is struggling with new things being taught and may need extra attention. Emotional reasons, children may have a lack of motivation and may not try new skills/tasks if they are unsettled which will then cause low confidence and self esteem issues.
Physical development may be effected by genetics this can mean physical growth difficulties or the child may be a slower learner. Environmental reasons as in outcome 2.2 such as poverty, where a child lives, education and their family structure can affect a childs development . Culturally reasons such as how people bring up their children with the different religions having different beliefs which can adversely affect childrens development. Social reasons for eg if a child is born into poverty or a family who is separated, this is likely to have negative affects on children or if a family give less time to other activities out side of school for kids such as football, hockey or cricket this will affect the childs development as they are not getting as much play with other children. Communication problems will also affect a childs development.
Children with hearing or stammer will find it hard to communicate and hard to express themselves and can show aggressive behaviour when frustrated. These children may experience problems with reading and writing.
Children that may have a learning or physical disability may get bullied at school which will affect their self confidence and may affect their learning and language capabilities and development.
There are many interventions that can help promote positive outcomes for children such as a social worker, speech and language therapist, psychologist, youth justice, additional learning support or a health visitor. In my setting a child had a stammer and he went to as speech and language therapist, they helped and learnt the child how to deal with this issue. By helping this child with speech therapy his confidence grew and he had more self esteem. The child can now talk properly with only a slight stammer compared to what it was before.
It is extremely important of early identification of speech, language and communication delays and disorders and the potential risks of late recognition. In young children any typical comprehension or production of speech sounds like vowels and consonants, words phrases or sentences are known as communication delays or disorders. I would pay attention to any causes of concerns such as a childs vocabulary and grammar and slow communication development. The child may grunt, point or say one word rather than attempt to produce words in a sentence.
If the child hasn’t got as much interest in other toys that children that age should be playing with, or of the child prefers to play alone or considered shy or withdrawn may experience speech and language delays or disorders. Some of the risks include, children not fulfilling their potential, they may struggle to be independent, they may become withdrawn, anti- social behaviour, depression, low self esteem and confidence, difficulty in making or keeping friends or experiencing problems with learning and understanding information.
(2) Multi agency teams works together to support speech, language and communication by meeting together to talk through the help, resources or support needed for the child their family or if the child is in another setting. It helps by everyone being there and everyone having the same aim or goal. The groups sort out who is doing what and when and they discuss who to contact if more advice or support is needed. They will have meetings, taking minutes and collectively providing correct up to date information if any circumstances have changed through the time they are working together.
Play and activities are used to support the development of speech, language and communication for children by playing games that they must use vocal skills such as ‘the name game’ which we play in work. The kids are put in 2 teams and there will be a bed sheet between them, one child from each team will stand either side of the sheet and when the staff drop the sheet they must shout the name of the person standing the other side, the first person to shout the right name wins and the they win the other child to their side.
This game lets the children get to know each other building social/communication development but also speech and language as they are talking and need to shout the name loud and clearly. Every child is given the choice to play or not, so even if they don’t they are still developing their skills by watching and learning how to play if they are not sure.
Different types of transitions can affect children and young peoples development. Types of transitions are emotional – when personal experiences such as beginning or leaving a place of care, parents separating or bereavement. Physical – change in environments like a new home or from one activity to another. Intellectual – changing schools or school years from primary to secondary. Physiological – puberty or medical conditions.
All of the above can affect development as things are new to the child, they may feel like moving from one class to another is scary, they may be nervous the fact there may be new faces or a new teacher may make the child feel anxious or scared if their parents are separating. Some young people may become depressed with some of these transitions as they may get bullied if they move to a new class or a new house in a different area and they may struggle to make new friends with low self esteem and low self confidence.
They may withdraw themselves from other children and not want to leave the house, which will affect their social development skills. Bereavement may also cause depression as the child may think it was their fault they will fell low self worth and maybe loose direction in life. During periods of transition having positive relationships can support children ins schools by adults making themselves known to the children.
Personalities , attitude and approach will reassure the children on the type of support they could get making them feel safe and secure and developing their own self esteem. Letting children know that when an accident happens its ok and it can be fixed or cleaned up and the adult always reassures the child. Communication is a good way for a child to gain self esteem and confidence after bereavement and help them come to terms with the sense of loss.