0-3 Months – Lies on back with head to one side, When held sitting back is a full curve, Head lags when pulled up into a sitting position, Has primitive reflexes such as sucking/grasping, Brings hand over chest or chin, Watches movement of own hands, Kicks legs and waves arms. 3-6 Months – Sits with support, Pushes head neck & chest off floor with arms when on its front, Holds arms out to be lifted, When held standing bears weight on feet and bounces, Uses whole hand in palmer grasp – passes toys from one hand to another. Baby starts to roll from side to side. 6-9 Months – Sits alone for 10-15 minutes without support, Reaches out for toys when sitting, May crawl or shuffle, Pulls body to stand but cannot lift lower body so falls backwards, Pokes at small items with index finger. 9-12 Months – Pulls to stand then can stand alone and starts to walk holding on ‘cruising’, Becomes mobile through standing or shuffling, Enjoys self feeding and holds cup with help, Has started to pick up anything tiny from the floor, Starts to show hand preference.
1-2 Years – Can walk alone with legs far apart, Drops from standing to sitting, Pushes & pulls toys when walking, Can walk downstairs with hand held, Rolls and throws ball, Makes marks with crayons, turns pages in picture books. 2-4 Years – Starts to put on shoes, Can walk on tip toes, Cutting out simple shapes, Buttoning clothing, Hopping on one foot, Using a spoon without spilling, Climbing on furniture, Washing & drying hands with help, Walks up & down stairs with confidence. 4-7 Years – Pedalling & steering a tricycle, Drawing around a template, Hitting ball with bat or stick, Running quickly and avoiding obstacles , Skipping with a rope, Forming letters & writing own name, Can dress & undress, Ties laces, Chases and plays with others.
7-12 Years – Chasing & dodging others, Balancing on a beam or a wall, Drawings are more detailed, Child writes with even spacing, Can complete more complex puzzles, Child is refining physical skills such as jumping. 12-16 Years – Rapid Body changes from puberty (girls mature before boys), Height increase, Growth of body & facial hair, Changes to voice, Breast Development, Children usually gain their 2nd molars at this stage. Chest & shoulders get broader on boys. 16-19 Years – The start of menstruation in girls, Muscle strength & size increase during this period, Sexual organs mature, Physical features are shapes & defined, Boys may continue to gain weight.
Louise Burnham, 2007, The Teaching Assistants Handbook, Level 3, Heinemann. Penny Tasoni, Kath Bulman, Kate Beith, 2005, Childrens Care Learning & Development, Level 3 NVQ, Heinemann.