There are 5 different aspects which come from the sequence of child development. These are
3) Emotional and behaviour l
4) Communication and language
5) Intellectual and cognitive
This stage of development is very fast. Baby’s movements help them to feed or hold on when they grab something. A 1 year old child has more control over their bodies. And at this age may begin to start crawling or pulling themselves up to stand. Within the year the child may begin walking using toys to help keep their balance. From the age of 2-3 years the child may start feeding itself using its hands or a spoon. The child may also be able using crayons and holding them to write or draw. They will also start to play alone and experiment with different textures such as water.
From the ages 3-7 years old the child will gain a lot more independence. All their mobility skills will have advanced such as climbing, walking, catching and throwing. The child will now be able to develop on their fine motor skills such as holding a pencil, threading a bead and holding scissors to cut around shapes. The child should be able to dress and undress itself and be able to do and undo zips and buttons. At 7the child will enjoy playing in team games such as football or netball. Their confidence has increased when climbing, running and hitting a ball.
The child will begin to lose all of its baby teeth and grow a lot taller and thinner. Hobbies are now a big thing in the child’s life and become more practised. Some girls will show signs of puberty.
Between the ages of 12 – 16 years each child is very different in their development. Some may have reached physical maturity and others may just be beginning. Most girls will have finished puberty while many boys will be starting.
Boys will be still maturing up to the age of 20. All girls have reached full maturity.
Communication and language development
The child will start to recognize familiar voices such as parents, grandparents and siblings. They may respond to voices with smiles or noises. By 18 months they should have a vocabulary of 3-20 words. They should be able to make sounds like “Dada” and “Mama”. By the age of 3 the child should be able to make more adult type speech and form sentences. They should have a vocabulary of about 300 words.
By the age of 3-5 they will ask a lot more questions, be able to hold a full conversation and begin to question adult’s responses more. They will enjoy reading books aloud to parents and teachers. Their vocabulary should be between 900 – 1500 words.
By this age their reading and writing skills are much more advanced. They will know how to use punctuation and the correct grammar. They will be using all to find information e.g. using a dictionary and using computers to send email and research. They have a very wide vocabulary having 4000 to10, 000 words.
Intellectual and Cognitive development
0 – 3 Years
At this young age the child will begin to recognize familiar voices and parents faces. They also start exploring by putting things in their mouth and can recognize different smells. They will respond to certain images and bright colours
From 18 months they can recognize a lot more things such as pictures from books, favourite cartoon characters and be able to do jigsaws and follow simple instructions.
Between 2-3 years the child will copy many mannerisms of the people around them. They should also recognize such things as big and small or hot and cold.
From the age of 3 the child should be able to follow simple instructions and recognize sequences such as counting 123. The child will know the difference between right and wrong.
At the age of 5 the child will start been more independent and become very curious of the world around them. They may start reading to themselves as their concentration grows longer.
From the age 7-12 the child will follow more complex instructions. And will have a longer attention span. They will now see other people’s point of view and start to research information for themselves using the internet or books. They will also know the difference between real and imaginary, but still enjoy imaginary games.
By the age of 12 the child will be able to concentrate more and follow very complex instructions. They will develop more creative abilities e.g. more detailed writing and drawing skills. And be able to understand more complex mathematical or scientific process.
The child will cry to communicate to others and responds to smiles from other people. The child will only consider others in relation to satisfying its own needs such as warmth, sleep, food, drink and comfort. The child will respond to instructions and may be aggressive to other children
From the age of 3 the child will enjoy the company of other children and learns to play alongside them. They will also be eager to please and seek approval from adults. The child should be able to dress and go to the toilet themselves. They will also appear confident and competent in their own abilities.
From the age of 7 the child will enjoy been with groups of people and becomes lees concerned about parental approval and more concerned about peer approval. The child will now be able to join in games with rules and other activities.
They will now continue to enjoy other peoples company and individual friendship is very important. Peer approval can overtake the need for adult approval and may be strongly influenced by role models. Although they are adults they may still need guidance and advice.
1.1 Explain the difference between sequence of development and rate of development and why the difference is important.
Rate is the speed of which development takes place for example one baby may start talking at 9months another may start at 12 months and another may start at 14 months.
Sequence is the order in which the development happens for example a child may sit, roll, crawl then walk or sit shuffle then walk. Some of the process is missed but still follows an expected pattern.
It is very important to know the difference so that we can spot any help the child may need or if any special educational needs exist.
2.1 Explain how children and young people’s development is influenced by a range of personal factors.
Disabilities – for example, a child with cerebral palsy may not walk at the average age, or a child with Autistic Spectrum Disorder may not develop verbal communication. Health status – for example, a child who has severe eczema may have low self-esteem, affecting social and emotional development Sensory impairment – A child with a hearing impairment may have delayed speech and language Learning difficulties – A child may have difficulty with some areas of cognitive development
From birth all these factors may affect the child’s development.
2.2 Explain how children and young people’s development is influenced by a range of external factors.
Physical environment – A child who lives in a bungalow may be delayed in the skill of climbing stairs Poverty and deprivation – lack of access to play facilities, larger families, less healthy diet and poor housing are known to have a detrimental effect on child development and achievement Looked after/care status – lack of family stability can be detrimental to social, emotional and behaviour development. Children may have been abused or neglected prior to entering care system. And are less likely to achieve educational targets. Education – Access to quality play and learning opportunities can encourage all areas of development. Education can also lead to positive choices by children and young people. Family environment
and background – Parenting styles can influence social, emotional and behaviour development. Providing opportunities for play and learning. Cultural background can also have an effect on development e.g. languages spoken, beliefs about play and independence. Children also learn from older siblings. Personal choices – As children get older they take control over their own decisions regarding lifestyle, such as diet, exercise, risky behaviour, relationships, attention to school. These things can all influence different areas of development.
Sadly children from poorer families perform less than others due to parents been unable to meet there educational needs such as not been able to pay for a school trip or having the funds for example to buy a child’s fancy dress for such things as world book day.
2.3 Explain how theories of development and frameworks to support development influence current practice. Cognitive/constructivist
Piaget recognised that children have different learning processes to adults, Children learn through developing ‘schemas’ (building blocks of knowledge)Children’s intellectual development is a process of adaptation to the world, which includes: Assimilation
Which is using an existing schema to deal with a new object or situation. Accommodation
This happens when the existing schema (knowledge) does not work, and needs to be changed to deal with a new object or situation. Equilibration
This is the force which moves development along, and is disrupted by assimilation when new schemas are added.
Piaget therefore believed that children need to hands on experiences in order to construct their own understanding . This is reflected in the Foundation Phase.
Piaget believed children go through four stages of development :-
Sensorimotor – 0-2 years
Key feature – object permanence
Preoperational – 2-7 years
Key feature – Egocentrism
Concrete operational – 7-11 years
Key feature – Conservation
Formal operational – 11yrs+
Key feature – Manipulate ideas in head e.g. abstract reasoning
Behaviourism is the belief that behaviour and development are shaped by the environment. The mind is a blank slate when we are born and our morals and actions are developed by the responses of our environment. Famous theorists include John Watson he belivied that :-
Behaviour is developed by the responses of the people and environment Claimed that behaviour can be shaped by changing the conditions (associated behaviours) In practice, this theory influences how staff respond to children in certain situations – e.g. staying calm when children discover a spider Making early years environments happy and welcoming will make children associate learning with positive feelings
This means that if a child is praised for doing something they will tend to do it again however if the child is told off they tend not to do it again. Negative and positive reinforcements this can bee seen in Woodhouse community primary school using such things as rainbow tickets for good behaviour and moving up the steps for bad behaviour. A framework is a tool which guides our practice.Social pedagogy is the term for frameworks which combine the education and care of children, reflecting the ideas of a range of theorists. Social pedagogy supports development by looking at the holistic needs of children and young people. Examples include the current trend for pastoral care alongside the National Curriculum, and the use of circle time and friendship stops with younger children.
3.1 Explain how to monitor children and young peoples development using different methods. Observations:- These can take place during playtime or during a lesson. This is the best way to if a child’s development is causing concern. Assessment Framework:- This is a way a child is assessed to see if they are in need for example a child moving from reception to year 1. These will be carried out by the class teacher and the SENCO. Information from carers and members of staff:- This is possibly the best source as parents or carers know the child. Staff can share information and asses if any measures are to be taken. Standard measurement:- The standard measures include reasoning tests, health assessment and CAT tests.
3.2 Explain the reasons why children and young people may not follow the expected pattern. Disability can affect most areas of development early support can lessen the affect of the disability. Physical development can be affected by genetics and can mean growth difficulties or the child may be a slower learner than other. Environmental this can can be affect in many ways including poverty, where a child lives and their family structure. These will all effect development. Learning difficulties these can impact on the child‘s development with such simple things like having difficulties reading or writing or genetic disease.
3.3 Explain why disability may affect development. A child with a disability may find it hard to play or socialise with other children therefore their social and emotional development may be affected. Their behavioural development may also be affected due them getting frustrated not been able to join in all activities with the other children. It is important not to restrict the child to certain activities that people THINK they can not do do.
3.4 Explain how different types of interventions can promote positive outcomes for children and young people where development is not following the expected pattern. It is important to intervene at a early stage to make sure the child gets the correct help from the different professional. The main professional are:- Social workers – A team of people from the social service department that are called in if there is a concern about he child’s home situation. The school can contact them directly. They also work with the school regarding ‘looked after children’. Psychologist – If the child makes no progress with other professionals such a s a speech therapist. They can carry out other assessments and bring in others tools and techniques. This can make a big difference to the child’s situation. Speech therapist – They will help the child in weekly sessions working with teachers. Parents and other processionals to set goals for the child and help them with there communication skills.
4.1 Analyse the importance of early identification of speech, language and communication delays and disorders and the potential risk of later recognition. It is very important to identify speech, language and communication delays as a child will need support as soon a s possible to achieve any development. All there development stages could be put back due to them not been able to communicate properly they may become frustrated easy which could impact on the social and emotional development. The Risks could be the child not been able to keep friends, lack of motivation,anti social-behaviour and low self-esteem.
4.2 Explain how multi-agency teams work together to support speech, language and communication. Children with speech, language and communication problems have a whole team of support behind them they include a speech therapist (see 3.4), the schools SENCO who will work with all the other professional in the child’s interest and even a AAT who can advise if the child has been diagnosed with autism. All the agencies will work close together to find the child’s best options to further develop.
4.3 Explain how play and activities are used to support the development of speech, language and communication. Play and activities could include puppets, Games, computers/laptops and pictures. The use of puppets would allow role play and encourage the child to talk. Games such as snap could teach them to communicate and take turns. Computers/laptops could be used with different interactive apps or programs. Pictures could be used alongside words to make communication a little easier.
5.1 Explain how different types of transitions can affect development. Most transitions are different foe each child. The child will act differently in each situation a few of these could be:- Emotional:- Such as divorce or bereavement these can affects the child’s development due to been frustrated, withdrawn, anger or behaviour. Physical:- Such as moving house or schools this could impact there development due to the child been emotional loosing friends or frustrated having to learn a new language. Intellectual:- The main cause here could be the transition from KS2 to KS3. Moving into a different learning environment and having much harder work to concentrate on they could show signs of stress or anxiety.
5.2 Evaluate the effect on children and young people having positive relationships during periods of transition. Children will find it a lot easier in transitions if they have someone to talk to. Positive support will have a massive impact on the child’s emotional development. This will make the child feel at eases and help them talk about there feelings. They may show no signs of self esteem if they can talk there problems through and keep a positive relationship and feel secure.