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Typical body cells Essay

Typical body cells show some vital characteristics in that they: self-replicate precisely; halt replication promptly; collect at the correct location; perform self-destruction in case they get damaged; and mature or specialize. Unlike typical cells, cancerous cells: do not die after relocating to a different body part; fail to respond to signals produced by different cells; do not congregate together; do not halt duplication; and do not specialize plus do not mature.

Cancerous cells fail to halt replication following doubling fifty or sixty times. They could halt self-destruction or could perform self-destruction at a slower rate than the duplication rate and hence their amount persists on increasing. A cancerous cell component supersedes conventional signaling structures perhaps because genes responsible for instructing such cells to replicate persist on giving signals or owing to damage of genes which instruct cells to halt replication (http://www. cancerhelp. org.

uk/help/default. asp? page=96). Therefore cancerous cells continue replicating regardless of the body damage occasioned by the excess cells at the location where such cells are duplicating. Cancerous cells could lack molecules responsible for correctly positioning ordinary cells and thus they detach from surrounding cells. Cancerous cell spread throughout the body takes several forms including: source organ destruction and direct attack; or blood or lymph system spread to far away organs like the lung, liver and bone.

Cancerous cells fail to mature after they are produced; they could actually become fewer with time. Owing to such replication, majority of the cell’s genetic material could be lost and thus cells become increasingly primitive; they replicate faster and more erratically (http://www. cancerhelp. org. uk/help/default. asp? page=96). Cancers kill by exhaustively using up body’s nutrients or blood; the swelling squeezes other body organs.

Cancerous cells have some growth edge over ordinary cells and fail to properly perform duties like hormone production (may produce excess or no hormones). At times cancers physically impede organ activities, for instance, liver and pancreatic tumors block essential bile ducts resulting to toxic sound outcomes. They as well block organ blood supply and develop a mesh of blood vessels surrounding tumors to nourish them. Liver cirrhosis is some disorder whereby the liver steadily deteriorates plus breaks down because of constant injury.

It mostly results from hepatitis C and B, fatty liver disease or alcoholism. Tissues of the liver are substituted with regenerative nodules and rubbery scar tissue thus the liver progressively loses its function (http://digestive. niddk. nih. gov/ddiseases/pubs/cirrhosis/). Mostly cirrhosis causes ascites (abdominal cavity fluid withholding) that causes reduced life quality and increased susceptibility to infection. Esophageal varice bleeding and Hepatic encephathology (comma and confusion) are other serious cirrhosis complications.

Cirrhosis Symptoms include: spider angiomata which are vascular lacerations composed encircled by numerous lesser vessels; palmar erythema which are usual spotted mottling exaggerations owing to modified metabolism of sex hormones; nail alterations (terry’s nails, muehrcke’s nails and clubbing ); hypertrophic osteoarthropathy –constant proliferative long bone periostitis; hypogonadism – infertility, impotence, testicular wasting and lack of sexual urge; normal, shrunken or enlarged liver; splenomegaly – spleen enlargement; ascites- fluid accumulation within the peritoneal hollow; caput medusa; cruveilhier-baumgarten murmur; fetor hepaticus- musty smell from breath; jaundice –yellow eyes, skin plus mucus membranes; asterixis- two-sided asynchronous hand outstretching; and fatigue, weight reduction, anorexia, and weakness (http://digestive. niddk. nih. gov/ddiseases/pubs/cirrhosis/). Cirrhosis could impair the immune system thus causing infection. Intestinal bacteria could infect abdominal fluid.

inadequate supply of blood to kidneys may result thus causing severe renal malfunction. Hepatopulmonary syndrome- blood bypass of conventional lung flow, leading to dyspnea and cyanosis- could also result. Portopulmonary hypertension, heightened lung blood pressure due to entry hyperextension may also be experienced. References National digestive diseases information clearinghouse (NDDC). (December 2008). Cirrhosis. Retrieved June 2, 2009, from http://digestive. niddk. nih. gov/ddiseases/pubs/cirrhosis/ The cancer cell: cancer research UK: CancerHelp UK. (December 2nd 2008). Retrieved June 2, 2009, from http://www. cancerhelp. org. uk/help/default. asp? page=96


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