• massed practice and distributed practice • whole practice and part practice • blocked practice and random practice • varied and constant practice • drill and problem solving
Massed Practice; is a training routine in which a skill is practised continuously and consistently. E.g. 50 softball pitches, 25 basketball free throws, volleyball 40 serves. A barrier to massed practice includes fatigue and motivation and is usually undesirable to beginners.
Distributed Practice; consists of short, frequent practice sessions with rest intervals. This type of practice is effective for learning skills. E.g. 5 sets of 20 chest passes with 2 minute rests. Most evidence indicates that distributed practice is more effective in improving performance.
Whole Practice; is the learning of the skill in its entirety. This type of practice is effective in skills that are high in complexity and low in organisation such as jump shot or skating.
Part Practice; is the learning of each of the separate components of the skill. It is particularly effective when the skill being taught is complex and has clearly defined components e.g. golf swing. Both Part and Whole Practice can be used to teach the same skills e.g. breaststroke.
Blocked Practice; is where learners attempt the same skill repeatedly in order to refine and improve their performance. E.g. Tennis –15 forehands,15 backhands, 15 volleys. More effective for learners in the cognitive stage.
Random Practice; is when all components of the multi task skill are practiced in random order within each practice session.
Constant Practice; refers to the practice of only one skill without any variation e.g. kicking a ball to a target 10 away.
Varied Practice; refers to practicing a class of skills using variations within the one practice session. E.g. kicking to a target 10m away then 20m away and 30m.
Drills; Learning through repetition (eg. Dig, Set, spike drill we do in class)
Problem Solving; learning through investigation and discovery. (if the teacher gave you a ball and said “work out how to serve the ball with no instruction or feedback)