To make learning very effective it is not only necessary to utilize the factors and techniques that facilitate learning, the teacher are to create certain conditions in the class-room that may improve learning.
These conditions are providing teaching aids, creating rivalry and co-operation, giving the knowledge of progress and success, praising or reprimanding and guiding learning.
Visual aids make learning concrete and meaningful. You may describe the physical features of the Indo- Gangetic plain, but motion pictures, filmstrips, maps, charts, diagrams; pictures would make your verbal description concrete.
An additional meaning is attached to verbal instruction when teaching aids are used. These are simply supplementary devices and not the sup planters of what the teacher can do. The following are the uses of teaching aids:
(1) There is a belief that some students are eye-minded, some auditory-minded and some verbal-minded. Those who are verbal-minded can be easily taught through verbal instructions but for the rest visual aids are necessary.
Whether the above belief is sound or not, whether pupils can be so sharply differentiated or not is not the question. The fact is that the more organs are used in learning, the more effective the learning sensory becomes.
The abstract notions become easy to understand when they are presented through motion pictures or T.V. or such other teaching aids.
(2) Instructional aides provide substitutes to objects and situations that cannot be presented in the class-room. The science exhibition that is held at a far-off place cannot be brought into the science room but through a T.V. programme the whole of it can be viewed in a short period.
(3) Much of school learning involves symbols and abstractions. Language is conceptual. Arithmetic is even more conceptual. It means that the teacher who is teaching language or arithmetic will have to present varied experiences so that correct concepts may be formed. Instructional aides supply such vivid experiences.
Teaching aids are aids only. They are not to be so enthusiastically used that effort on the part of the learner is ignored. When a T.V. programme is viewed, precast and telecast work has to be done. The teacher has to connect the programme with the class work he has done previously or will do in the immediate future.
Teaching aids are an integral component in any classroom. The many benefits of teaching aids include helping learners improve reading comprehension skills, illustrating or reinforcing a skill or concept, differentiating instruction and relieving anxiety or boredom by presenting information in a new and exciting way. Teaching aids also engage students’ other senses since there are no limits in what aids can be utilized when supplementing a lesson. Read more: http://www.ehow.com/about_6365616_teaching-aids-important_.html#ixzz2uhbQ7MPs
ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF TEACHING AIDS
The process of teaching and learning largely depends on the available teaching materials. Today there are a wide range of teaching aids which can be audio, video, books, DVDs etc.
Teaching aids are those materials that help the teachers explain better knowledge and help the students understand. It is like the picture of the lesson.
It is especially important in lessons or topics that are strange to the kids. E.g. if you were teaching a group of kids in a remote village with no civilisation about types of houses, you will need a picture or a DVD showing the different houses and their names because most probably these kids have never seen or heard of such.
There are many other tested teaching tools and resources that have had a great impact in improving learning processes for students.
If you are a teacher and have not use any of the free or paid available teaching aids today, you will immediate see the difference in regards to your students’ performance once you try it.
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IMPORTANCE OF TEACHING AIDS IN LEARNING
WWH-WK WWS- WR
What We Hear We Know but What We See We Remember: individuals are prone to forgetfulness and hold on more to memories of things they have seen than heard. When an audio visual aid is correctly used it will help in retention of the acquired knowledge.
Motivation is almost everything in teaching and learning process, every individual whether teen or adult is more attentive to practical knowledge, the use of teaching aids can motivate and capture the students’ interest in what you are teaching.
Images last longer in the mind, when a learner correctly sees, hears and touches a knowledge he can himself put the pieces together and get the picture even without the teacher speaking.
Just like the previous teaching aids prompts the students’ reasoning and is a good example or conceptual thinking.
It sparks of interest. In schools where student skip classes, and then one day they see a teacher going to the class with a projector, DVD or a large paper. You will get a full class not because of your sternness but the aids had sparked their interest.
It reduces the workload of explanation on the teacher and gives a more permanent knowledge. Provides a more direct experience for the students. A student may have seen an object without knowing its name or use, the teacher will teach on that same subject but they just won’t get it, that’s where the aid comes in to remind them and you will here things like ‘okay!’ ‘We know it!’
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TYPES OF TEACHING AIDS
There a re mostly classified into:
VISUALS: these are aids that use the actual vision like maps, charts, objects, pictures, models, flash cards, chalkboard, projectors, slides, bulletin boards. Of all the chalkboard is the most used and sometimes pictures.
AUDIO: these aids uses only the student’s sense of hearing examples are films, television, DVDs, film strips etc.
AUDIO – VISUALS: these aids combine both the vision and hearing senses and always give a more vivid picture examples are films.
The use of audio- visual teaching aids is known to be more effective and aid comprehension in learners. The type of teaching aid used will also depend largely on the level and age of students. For kindergarten and play pen kids rhymes, pictures and flash cards are most appropriate, you definitely will not use rhymes and flash cards to teach students in tertiary institutions instead go for slides, maps and charts.
WRONG USAGE OF TEACHING AIDS can confuse as well as irritate students causing them to lose interest. As a teacher know the right aid and use them correctly then all teaching objective will be achieved by the end of the class.
THE ROLE OF TEACHING AIDS IN LEARNING
To clear all confusion
To increase vocabulary
To save time and money
To give direct experience
The importance of using a well-tested and result oriented teaching aid will lessen teaching time and help the students to stick the concept of the topic in the head. The joy of every teacher is to see his or her students improve drastically in their learning process.
Are you a teacher? or have you done it in the past?, we will like to hear from you about the teaching tools and aids you are using or have used in the past and if you see a big improve on the side of students understanding correctly the message you wanted to past through them.
Non Projected Visuals
Many types of non-projected media can make your instruction more realistic and engaging. Posters, cartoons, charts, pictures and graphs and what students produced by themselves can provide powerful visual support for learning abstract ideas. The non-projected media can be presented in the classroom or used as a part of a class activity. No need to use equipment for observation, so non-projected visuals are easy to use.
●●Visuals in the classroom
●● Using projected visuals in the classroom
●● Presentation software
●● Using digital images in the classroom
●● Using document cameras in the classroom
●● Overhead projector
There are six types of non projected visuals commonly found in the classroom:
1) drawings 2) diagrams and sketches 3)Posters 4) Cartoons 5) Charts 6) Graphs.
* STILL PICTURES:
Still pictures are photographs to characterize people, places and things. They are readily available in books, magazines, newspapers, catalogs, postcards, and calendars.
Using still pictures can suggest motion. You may use photographs in many different ways.You should be sure that your students should understand textbook pictures are not decoration but are aimed to be study aids and also should be used .You should motivate learners to use still pictures .They are important factors.
Drawings are readily found in the textbooks and other classroom materials. Sketches and diagrams employ the graphic arrangement of lines to represent persons, places, things and ideas. Your students can use computer-based programmes for layout, design, and illustration. They can use Apple -works and Photoshop.
USING NON-PROJECTED VISUALS
Teachers can use these for learners of all ages. They can involve groups to work collaboratively to prepare a presentation, with drawings and charts.
▪THERE ARE MANY TYPES OF DIFFERENT CHARTS: Organization charts, Classification charts, Time lines, Tabular charts, and Flowcharts.
▪THERE ARE MANY TYPES OF GRAPHS: Bar graphs, Pictorial graphs, Circle graphs, Line graphs.
Posters are easy to produce .They are used to catch and hold the viewer’s attention at least long enough to communicate a brief message quickly for a new topic or a special event.
Cartoons are very popular and familiar visual design. Cartoons are also easily and quickly read and appeal to learners of all ages. You can use cartoons to reinforce a point of instruction.
-DURABILITY: It is easy to damage with regular learner use it.
There is a problem to keep non-projected visuals- Storage.
-MAY BE TOO SMALL FOR GROUP VIEWING: non-projected visuals are not suitable for use for group because they are small.
**Using non projected visuals in the classroom
1.Use visuals whenever possible to demonstrate ideas.
2.Present a single idea in each visual. Break down complex visuals into simpler ones or build them up step-by-step.
3.Minimize text on each visual; maximum of six words per line and six lines per visual.
4.Cover irrelevant material with plain paper.
5.Use just one visual at time.
6.Teach your learners to understand visuals
7.Provide written cues to highlighted important information contained in the visuals.
* Readily available * Inexpensive * No equipment required
* Easy to use * Available for all levels of instruction
* Available for all disciplines * Simplification of complex ideas.
MONDAY, 23 SEPTEMBER 2013
NON PROJECTED A.V. AIDS:
It is a combination of graphic and pictorial material designed for the orderly and logical visualizing of relationships between key facts and ideas ex: comparisons, relative amounts developments, processes, classification or organization. It includes the following
These visual symbols used for summarizing, comparing, contrasting or performing other services in explaining subject matter. A chart is a combination of pictorial, graphic, numerical or vertical material, which presents a clear summary.
Chart is defined as a visual aid which depicts pictorial and written key information in systematic way to summarize, compare, ex: anatomical charts and figure, diagrams etc.
Ø To visualize an item, it is otherwise difficult to explain only in words.
Ø To highlight important points.
Ø To provide outline for materials covered in presentation.
Ø To show continuity in process.
Ø For creating problems and stimulating thinking.
Ø For showing development of structure.
TYPES OF CHARTS:
Ø Narrative chart: Arrangement of facts and ideas for expressing the events in the process or development of a significant issue to its point of resolution or we can show an improvement over a period of years.
Ø The cause and effective chart: Arrangement of facts and ideas
for expressing the relationship between rights and responsibilities or between a complex of conditions and change or conflict.
Ø The chain chart: arrangement of facts and ideas for expressing transitions or cycles.
Ø The evolution chart: facts and ideas for expressing changes in specific items from beginning data and its projections in to future.
ØStrip tease chart: it enables speaker to present the information step by
It increases the interest and imagination of the audience.
The information on the chart is covered with thin paper strips to which it has been applied either by wax, tape or sticky substance or pins.
As the speaker wishes to visually reinforce a point with words or symbols, he removes the appropriate strip or paper. It produces interest.
It increases learning and aids recall.
Ø Pull chart: it consists of written messages which are hidden by strips of thick paper. The message can be shown to the viewer, one after another by6 pulling out the concealing strips.
Ø Flow chart: diagrams used to show organizational elements or administrative or functional relationships. In this chart lines, rectangles, circles, are connected by lines showing the directional flow.
Ø Tabulation chart: it shows the schedule of an activity or of an individual ex: time-table of a class. These are very valuable aid in the teaching situation where breakdown of a fact or a statement is to be listed. Also it is a useful aid for showing points of comparison, distinction, and contrasts between two or more things. While making the table charts the following points must be kept in the mind.
The chart should be 50 X 75 cm or more in size.
The chart should be captioned in bold letters.
The vertical columns should be filled in short phrases rather than complete sentences.
Ø Flip chart: a set of charts related to specific topic have been tagged together and hang on a supporting stand. The individual charts will carry a series of related materials or messages in sequence. The silent points of specific topic will be presented.
Ø Pie chart: a circle will be drawn and divisions will be made into different sections, each section will be coded differently and code key will be given at right corner of the chart as legend. The circumference is divided into suitable sections. It is relevant for showing the component part
“Flash cards are a set of pictured paper cards of varying sizes that are flashed one by one in a logical sequence.”
”Flash cards can be self made or commercially prepared and are made up of chart or drawing paper, plane paper using colors or ink on them for drawings.”
1. To teach the students.
2. To give health education.
3. Useful for small group.
4. Used in group discussions.
· The messages can be brief, simple line drawing or photographs, cartoons and the content will be written in few lines at the back of the each card.
· 10″ X 12″ or 22″ X 28″ is commonly used size.
· 10-12 cards for one talk can be used. It should not be less than 3 and more than 20.
· Prepare a picture for each idea which will give visual impact to the idea.
· The height of writing on the flash card is to be approximately 5cm for better visualization.
USING THE FLASHCARDS:
For class room instruction, the flash card s is to be properly used. The following steps are used while displaying flash cards.
1. Give brief introduction about the lesson to students.
2. Give instructions to students about their actions while you flash the cards.
3. Flash the card in front of the class by holding it high with both your hands so that all the students can see it.
4. Let the student respond as per instructions already given.
5. Review the lesson by selectively using flash cards.
· Flash cards can be used to introduce and present topics.
· It can be used to apply information already gained by students to new situations
· It can be used to review a topic.
· Can be used for drill and practice in elementary classes
· To develop the cognitive abilities of recognition and recall of students.
· It can work as a useful supplementary aid and can be effectively used with other material.
· Can not be used for a large group
· Prone to get spoiled soon
· Preparation is time consuming.
“Posters are the graphic aids with short quick and typical messages with attention capturing paintings.”
· To provide general motivation.
· To create an esthetic or atmospheric effect.
· To communicate a more general idea. To thrust the message for leading to action.
· For the class room and community.
PREPARATION AND RULES:
· To do a special job.
· To promote one point.
· To support local demonstration.
· Planned for specified people
· Tell the message at single glance.
· Use bold letters.
· Use pleasing colors…
· It should place, where people pass or gather.
FEATURES OF A GOOD POSTER:
· Brevity: message should be concise
· Simplicity: message should be easily understandable
· Idea: should base on single idea and it should be relevant.
· Color: suitable color and combination should be used to make the poster attractive and eye catching.
· Display: while displaying one should be sure to find a place where there is ad4equate light and where the larger population will see it.
· It attracts attention.
· It conveys the message very quickly.
· It does not require a detailed study.
· Good poster leads to action with good motivation
· It can stand alone and is self explanatory.
Poster does not always give enough information
When a poster is seen for longer time it may not attractive. So it should be dynamic
Graphs are the visual teaching aids for presenting statistical data and contrasting the trends or changes of certain attributes.
METHOD OF PREPARATION:
· Before making the bar chart makes a rough sketch of it in a note book.
· For drawing the bar graph use the chart paper of 50x 72 cm size.
· Use two different color shades for the two contrasting groups.
· The bars should be equi-spaced.
· Write the key to the bar graph in a box on the right hand side corner of the chart paper.
· Numbers specifying the magnitude of the bars should be on the top on the bars.
Pie graph: These are called as circle diagram. The data are presented thorough the sections of portions of a circle.
· In determining the circumference of a circle we have to take in to consideration a quantity known as pie.
· The surface area of a circle is to cover 360 degree.
· The total frequencies or value us equated to 360 degree and then the angles corresponding to component parts are calculated.
· After determining their angle, the required sectors in the circle are drawn.
The graphic presentation extends the scale horizontally along the length of bars. Each bar must be of the same width, height of the bar over a period represents the corresponding time of the variable. Graphs are available in 2 forms that is vertical and horizontal
To show the trends and relationships ex: single line shows the relation and the variation in the quantity. Quantitative data are plotted or when the data is continuous. The concepts are represented with the help of lines drawn either horizontally or vertically. The plotted points are connected to one another, instead of the base thus producing the curve.
It is an out standing method of graphic representation. Pictures are used for the expression of ideal; they are more attractive and easily understood. Vivid pictures will be used to create rapid association with the graphic message; each visual symbol may be used to indicate quantity.
A map is a graphic aid representing the proportionately as a diagram, the surface of the earth, world or parts there of. It conveys the message by lines, symbols, words and colors.
TYPES OF MAPS:
v Political maps: these maps show political divisions of the world, a continent, a nation.
v Physical maps: shows the physical contour of a place, area, and region.
v Relief maps: it shows the actual elevations and depressions in a place, area, and region.
v Weather maps: shows the amount of rains, temperature extremes, humidity in an area, region country.
v Population maps: shows the distribution of population in various parts of region, country.
v Picture or tourist maps: shows historical spots monumental sites.etc..
v Road maps: shows the roads of a region connecting various parts and points together.
v Railway maps: shows the railway links between various points.
v Air maps: shows the air routes between various points.
v Sea root maps: shows the sea routes between various sea ports
The word cartoon has various meanings, based on several very different forms of visual art and illustration. The term has evolved over time.
The original meaning was in fine art, and there cartoon meant a preparatory drawing for a piece of art such as a painting.
A cartoon is humorous caricature which gives a subtle message.
In a cartoon the features of objects and people are exaggerated along with generally recognized symbols.
· The quality of the drawing should be high primarily for visual effectiveness.
· The symbols used should be familiar and represent a concept or idea to which students can react intellectually.
A cartoon can be effectively used to initiate certain lesson.
· It can be used for making a lesson lively and interesting.
It can furnish health messages in local languages which cancan reach to the public easily. The information will be available in low cost, easy to read and understand simple language .the people may learn to read and interpret the contents along with pictures to enhance easy grasping.
ü Best method to reach a large group
ü Pictures will help in easy understanding
ü Attractive and easy to understand
ü Lot of information can be obtained in various fields
ü useful for literates only
ü detailed information cannot be produces
A comic strip is the graphic depiction in a series of pictures or sketches of some character and events full of action.
This medium of communication is found very interesting and exciting by children.
· Comic strips fire the imagination of children
· It boosts the courage of children and builds up the spirit of adventure.
· It communication detailed and vivid.
· It stimulates reality and involvement.
· Comic strips misguide children by depicting characters with supernatural powers divorced from the hard realities of life.
· Comic strips hamper the development of language of children.
· Classics brought out in the form of comics develop the tendency in children to ignore or by pas s the original work.
· Comics can soon become an obsession with young children and they tend to avoid serious studies