A machine tool is a machine for making components of a given shape, size and accuracy as per the requirements by removing material from the workpiece by using a cutting tool to operate upon the workpiece. Machine tools are capable of producing themselves therefore the machine tools are quite often referred to as mother machine. In the manufacturing processes, machine tools are the most versatile and almost any product can be produced with them. The machine tools should able to fulfill the following requirements:
•The machine tool should be able to produce consistently the components (or parts) of specified shape and size, dimensional accuracy and surface finish. These features depend upon the rigidity of the machine elements.
•Machine tool should be able to provide the flexibility of machining (or cutting) the material at various cutting speeds and at different material removal rates.
•The machine tools should be ergonomically designed so as to enable the operator to setup and control the machine without any problems.
The parts of the required shape and size can be obtained on a machine tool by imparting coordinated motions to its working member i.e., the cutting tool should move in a particular manner with respect to the workpiece. The cutting motions are of two types:
•Primary motion. It includes the cutting motion and the feed motion. The primary motion is the main motion provided by a machine tool or manually to cause relative motion between the tool and workpiece so that the face of the tool approaches the workpiece material. The primary motion absorbs most of the power required to perform a machining operation.
Primary motion has the purpose of removing the metal (chip) from the workpiece. The feed motion is a motion that may be provided to a tool or workpiece by a machine tool which, when added to the primary motion, leads to a repeated or continuous chip removal and the creation of a machined surface of desired geometry. This motion may proceed in steps or continuously, in either case it usually absorbs a small proportion of the total power required to perform a machining operation. The speed of the cutting motion is determined by the optimum cutting speed, while the speeds of the feed movement depend on the required degree of surface finish.
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Topic: Types of Cutting Motion in Machine Tools
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