Planning and building the landscape of education and the academic community is not an easy task or responsibility. There are various standards or guidelines that the academic institutions, its staff, teachers, communities, parents, and other stakeholders should adhere to in order to develop and provide educational programs and services that exceeds quality and excellence.
At the heart of this imposing goal of education is the accomplishment of various research studies for the purpose of formulating, determining, and proving or debunking various theories, models, paradigms, frameworks, strategies, techniques, etc. that respond to various concerns for all the dimensions and aspects of education. For instance, several research studies conducted within the scope of the field of education were designed to address how Educational Philosophies are supposed to be drafted based on diverse viewpoints on learning and education, i. e. idealism, realism, existentialism, and so on.
Moreover, theoretical perspectives that are being developed based on research studies and practical experiments lead to the development of various teaching strategies and techniques that address various problems from different angles of the learning situation. Under these pretexts, we realize why learning educational theories and models in different aspects of learning and education is important. The theories and models serve as a guide that helps government institutions, academic institutions, and teachers develop educational standards and guidelines, as well as specific programs, activities, learning content, and so on.
In this way, the landscape of learning and education are well-planned and designed to accomplish, in the process, the genuine goals and objectives of education and the responsibilities of the academic institution, its staff, and the teachers, toward the nation, the government, the community, the parents, other stakeholders, and most importantly the learners. Developing an Understanding of Instructional Design One specific aspect or dimension of the teaching-learning process is Instructional Design.
According to Jonassen, Tessmer, and Hannum (1999), Instructional Design may be considered initially as a process by which comprehensive information is obtained in order to determine how learning shall be best facilitated. The foundations of the Instructional Design shall be based on the nature of the learners, the features or characteristics of the learning environment, the availability of resources and information, the educational philosophy observed by the academic institution, the goals and objectives of education, rules and laws governing education, new trends or paradigms in education, and so on.
These information shall be utilized to identify the processes, strategies, techniques, methods, materials, etc. that are to be used to facilitate learning and transmit knowledge to the learners. (Jonassen, Tessmer, & Hannum, 1999) In order to develop sound, efficient, and appropriate practices in Instructional Design, various theories have been formulated to support the planning, implementation, and evaluation process. One of these theories includes the Instructional-Design Theory. The Instructional-Design Theory, according to Reigeluth (1983), is an outline that directs how learning shall be best facilitated.
The Instructional-Design Theory constitutes three key concepts which help individuals, particularly teachers, as well as academic institutions, plan and design the content, the methods, strategies, techniques, etc. of instruction for the purpose of enhancing how learning takes place. In developing the landscape of education as the primary concern for the literature, several references, such as books, publications, and journals have been published over the years discussing the Instructional-Design Theory.
However, not all information discussed in these references may be considered valid and reliable. Hence, reviewing references that shape the foundations of education, particularly in Instructional Design is important in order to obtain information that are relevant, appropriate, efficient, and advantageous for application to educational processes and operations. All about the Book Charles M. Reigeluth and Alison Carr-Chellman wrote the third volume of the “Instructional-Design Theories and Models” three-part series. The subtitle for this volume is “Building a Common Knowledge Base.
” The main theme of the book still adheres to the concepts of the Instructional-Design Theory, however, in this third volume, there was much emphasis on solidifying the bases or foundations of Instructional Design founded on the vast scope of information on frameworks, models, paradigms, and so on, that build on how Instructional Design is viewed, planned, implemented and evaluated. Reigeluth and Carr-Chellman’s goals and objectives in coagulating the foundations of Instructional Design were realized through their discussion of the common knowledge or information shared by the variety of archetypes, standards, paradigms, etc.
In addition, Reigeluth and Carr-Chellman may be highly regarded as reputable sources of information. Their experiences as members of the academe have made it possible for them to provide fitting contributions to the book. Reigeluth is a professor at Indiana University’s School of Education, Instructional Systems Technology Department. He has obtained a Ph. D. in Instructional Psychology at the Brigham Young University. (Indiana University, 2009) On the other hand, Carr-Chellman is also a professor at the Pennsylvania State University’s Department of Learning and Performance Systems.
She has obtained a Ph. D. in Instructional Systems Technology (Indiana University) and a Master and Undergraduate Degree in Education (Syracuse University). (SAGE Publications, 2008) Central to the discussions and arguments in the book is the belief of the importance of establishing a common knowledge base that would fuse the bases and extract the essence of Instructional Design that will be the foundations of other models, theories, strategies, techniques, and planning or designing, implementation, and evaluation of Instructional Design as a process.
This review primarily focuses on how Reigeluth and Carr-Chellman’s work is a great contribution to the field of education, particularly in shaping and developing the foundations of Instructional Design despite and even with the diverse changes to learning situations principally caused by concepts in constructivism. A SUMMARY OF THE BOOK
The first unit of the book, “Frameworks for Understanding Instructional Theory,” provides generally common information, represented in specific contexts and structures, about the definition, dimensions, and mechanics of the Instructional Theory, the Instructional Design and Instruction, the philosophies that govern the process of instruction, and how instruction is being applied within various learning situations. This particular unit was developed in order to provide introductory information.
It sets the stage for the succeeding discussions on the Instructional-Design Theories and Models by: (1) defining the features, conditions, conceptual framework, and delimitations of the Instructional-Design Theory, (2) discussing the importance of instruction and its role in facilitating learning and the transmission of knowledge, and (3) relating concepts and ideologies on the Instructional Theory and Instructional Design to practical situations that commonly occur within the setting of the teaching-learning process.
The second unit of the book, “Theories of Different Approaches to Instruction,” constitutes five approaches to instruction with varied goals and expected outcomes. Each was written by different authors who contributed to complete the objectives of the book.
The five approaches aforementioned are: (1) Direct Approach to Instruction which targets the fast and efficient transmission of knowledge through direct teacher-learner interaction, (2) Discussion Approach to Instruction which facilitates learning through discourse and interaction, (3) Experiential Approach to Instruction within learning environments that allow practical learning or the application of knowledge and skills, (4) Problem-Based Approach to Instruction wherein learning is facilitated by urging students to define problems and develop resolutions, and (5) Simulation Approach to Instruction which places the learners within an environment that represents reality.
The third unit of the book, “Theories for Different Outcomes of Instruction,” addresses problems, challenges, and difficulties in the teaching-learning process as caused by diversity and the complexity of learning and the learners, which necessitates the realization of different outcomes from the learning process in order to promote holistic learning. These four theories, which seek to accomplish varied outcomes from the learners, include (1) Skill Development, (2) Understanding, (3) Affective Development, and (4) Integrated Learning. Apparently, these theories are responses to the need to diversify learning so as not to capitalize excessively on cognitive learning and instruction. These theories are based on the perspectives of holistic learning, which looks into other aspects of the person aside from his cognitive faculties.
The fourth unit in the book, “Tools for Building a Common Knowledge Base,” tackles the practical aspect of developing a framework of Instructional Design, which is based on universal knowledge and information that withstands various changes and transformations in the landscape of education through time. There were various issues discussed in this particular chapter. The first issue has something to do with the conceptual framework of the Instructional Theory – that is the base knowledge or hypothesis for the theory, its goals and objectives, contributions to education, suggestions and recommendations, general points and ideas, and so on. Other issues constituted the design or process by which the academic institution is to undergo reformation.
These designs or processes include the successful implementation of a Learner-Centered Education, the dimensions of learning and the Instructional Theory, how the Instructional Theory is to be applied to educational processes and operations appropriately considering the inception of the Information Age, and the necessity to apply common knowledge base to capture the genuine essence of Instructional Design as a process to facilitate the improvement of the educational landscape. ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF THE BOOK This book is the third installment in a three-volume set on Instructional-Design Theories and Models. The first volume of the book was set down by Reigeluth, the editor, with primary issues and concepts focused on narrating, defining, and describing the basic concepts that build on the theory of Instructional Design within the context of the existing landscape of education during that point in time.
(Reigeluth, 1983) The second volume develops the major concepts and ideas in the first volume but with additions or contributions from paradigm shifts and newly discovered theories that seek to improve or enhance the framework of the Instructional Design Theory. (Reigeluth, 1999) Based on the concepts and ideas from the first and second volumes of the book, the fundamental features and contributions of the third volume are realized. The essence of this book lies in its undercurrent objectives of fusing the concepts and ideas from the first volume and the second volume in order to provide an improved source of information that builds on the core concepts of the Instructional Design Theory and the current trends integrated into the theory in order to develop or enhance its foundations as well as how it is applied with considerations on the modern issues and concepts.
Reigeluth and Carr-Chellman have efficiently worked together in order to collate significant information that contributes to progressive knowledge of Instructional Design as a theory by focusing on how all the major and significant parts of the theory, whether traditional or modern, shall be put together to reconcile rational yet long-established theories with modern constructivist theories. We may consider the process of developing this book as gaining the best of both worlds – that is, the face of Instructional Design in the past and at present time – to provide a new paradigm of the Instructional Design theory that is deep-rooted on a secure and time-tested model but is also appropriate for current learning environments and situations. Under these pretexts, the contributions of this book to human knowledge was realized because it presented something new or innovative that is logical and sensible as well as practical.
From the words of Reigeluth and Carr-Chellman (N. D. ), the maturity or development of knowledge in this particular context is only facilitated when theories are built on other theories. Reigeluth and Carr-Chellman’s vision in creating this book embodies innovation and development at the face of the necessity to continually improve one of the primary institutions in society that provides services in education. Delving into one of the many technical aspects of the book, Reigeluth and Carr-Chellman has also succeeded in providing a reputable or reliable and valid source of information based on the list of references used to complete this third volume.
Reigeluth and Carr-Chellman were able to obtain information that was integrated into the book from the individuals who developed the various theories discussed in the second, third, and fourth chapters of the book. Gaining the original ideas and perspectives from the theorists themselves establishes its reliability and validity since information were obtained first hand. Moreover, Reigeluth and Carr-Chellman, as the editors of the book, have handpicked a variety of primary and secondary references to back-up their theses or main arguments in the book. This means that both editors made an effort to approach the matter impartially and evenhandedly. The book was consistently structured and organized from start to finish.
It was topical in such a way that divisions were planned to categorize all similar ideas together, such that definitions were placed in the first unit, the theories for approaches in the second, and so on. In addition, the book was arranged chronologically in order to relay simple and singular information first before moving on to the complex ideas which have something to do with how the pioneers of education as a process are to synthesize information from the first units to develop a common knowledge base for the design and implementation of the Instructional Design Theory. Overall, the ideas were organized from general to specific and similar concepts or ideas were placed together in a single unit in order to prevent confusion on the part of the readers and to present a clear and concise conceptual structure.
However, in the same way, the structure of the book solidified some of its flaws regarding how the main theme was covered and how the readers are expected to synthesize the information provided in order to come up with a common knowledge base to enhance the framework of current theories or models of Instructional Design. Mostly, Reigeluth and Carr-Chellman presented concepts and ideas on the approaches and expected outcomes of instruction. Although introducing new theories is relevant in the quest to develop or improve the structure of Instructional Design or theory, the arrangement of the ideas and the scope of the discussions do not sit well with the primary objectives of the book, let alone its subtitle that was supposed to define its content.
I believe that Reigeluth and Carr-Chellman should have published two different books in order to secede the discussions in units two and three, and the fourth chapter, which genuinely captured the essence of the book. Furthermore, Reigeluth and Carr-Chellman should have given more thought on providing comprehensive and sufficient information on how individuals are to develop a common knowledge based on Instructional Design as a theory as it was the fundamental nature of the third volume of the three-part Instructional-Design book series. In terms of the content of the book, the number of sources, from books to journals, magazine articles, etc.
that I have read over time has taught me that different types of information made available for readers are not meant to be technically and practically critiqued, but instead digested in order to determine whether they represent rational and exploitable ideas and concepts for the advancement of human knowledge and development of education. Reigeluth and Carr-Chellman decided to contribute something to the field of education by introducing this third volume of the Instructional-Design Theories and Model series and the time and effort placed to do so is entirely commendable. Moreover, the diversity of learning situations and the complexity of the various aspects of the teaching and learning process nowadays justifies the applicability or non-applicability of new theories, approaches, techniques, strategies, etc. being introduced to the academic institution. This means that some ideas presented would turn out to be effective in some learning situations and ineffective in some.
The most important thing is to obtain the most important pieces of information that would be valid in all aspects and situations in order to establish a contingency plan that would prevent flaws and failures in education. This ideology represents what this book embodies as a bulk of knowledge. CONCLUSION By and large, the book is a significant piece of reference that contributes to the massive field of education, specifically in developing the foundations of Instructional Design as a response to the diverse changes in the learning situations and environments principally caused by concepts in constructivism. Although there were some flaws evident in the structure and organization of the book, it presents several pieces of information that meets the necessity for additional knowledge that expands Instructional Design.
In addition, the book is an excellent reference for individuals who are exploring the variety of theories and models that build up Instructional Design. With the success of the book in fusing conventional ideas with contemporary ones in an attempt to solidify the generally accepted foundations of Instructional Design as a theory and reconcile it with innovative theories and models, the only inquiry that remains is what the future holds for Instructional Design in terms of how it is to be approached and how its current paradigm is to be modified. References Indiana University. (2009). Profile: Charles M. Reigeluth. Retrieved 14 Apr 2009, from The Trustees of Indiana University.
Website: https://profile. educ. indiana. edu/Default. aspx? alias=profile. educ. indiana. edu/reigelut Jonassen, D. H. , Tessmer, M. , & Hannum, W. H. (1999). Task Analysis Method for Instructional Design. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Reigeluth, C. M. (1983). Instructional-Design Theories and Models: An Overview of their Current Status, Vol. I. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). Instructional-Design Theories and Models: A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory, Vol. II. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Reigeluth, C. M. & Carr-Chellman, A. A. (N. D). A Common Language and Knowledge Base for ID?.
Retrieved 15 Apr 2009, from the University of Georgia. Website: http://it. coe. uga. edu/itforum/paper91/Paper91. html Reigeluth, C. M. & Carr-Chellman, A. A. (2009) Instructional-Design Theories and Models: Building a Common Knowledge Base, Vol. III. NY, USA: Routledge. SAGE Publications. (2008). Alison. A. Carr-Chellman. Retrieved 14 Apr 2009, from SAGE Publications. Website: http://www. sagepub. com/authorDetails. nav? contribId=530086 University of North Carolina. (N. D. ). Book Reviews. Retrieved 14 Apr 2009, from Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2. 5 License. Website: http://www. unc. edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/review. html