Borrowing is the taking of words directly from one language into another without translation. Borrowed words are often printed in italics when they are considered to be “foreign”. E.g. Cafeteria كافيتريا – supermarket سوبر ماركيت – play station بلاي ستيشين – lorry لوري – android اندرويد Calque.
A calque or loan translation is a phrase borrowed from another language and translated literally word-for-word. E.g. Antibiotic مضاد حيوي – state university جامعة حكومية – brain drain هجرة الادمغه – sacrificial lamb كبش فداء – Poet Laureate امير الشعراء Literal Translation.
A word-for-word translation can be used in some languages and not others dependent on the sentence structure. In literal translation, the denotative meaning of words is taken as if straight from the dictionary, but TL grammar is respected. E.g. I like tennis. احب التنيس – bad news اخبار سيئه – The likes of these things have much demand now. مثل هذه الاشياء عليها اقبال كثير الان Oblique Translation Techniques :-
Oblique Translation Techniques are used when the structural or conceptual elements of the source language cannot be directly translated without altering meaning or upsetting the grammatical and stylistics elements of the target language. Oblique translation techniques include:
Reformulation or Equivalence
This is the process where parts of speech change their sequence when they are translated It is in a sense a shift of word class. Grammatical structures are often different in different languages. E.g. Red card كرت احمر ( the sequence of adjective followed by a noun changed ) Black car سيارة سوداء –
I ate an apple. اكلت تفاحه ( The place of the verb changed)- I visited Egypt زرت مصر Modulation
Modulation consists of using a phrase that is different in the source and target languages to convey the same idea. E.g. Birds of feather flock together الطيور علي اشكالها تقع Every dog has his day. لكل يومه – piece of cake سهل جدا I don’t have stomach for this. لا استطيع التحمل Reformulation or Equivalence.
Here you have to express something in a completely different way, for example when translating idioms or advertising slogans. The process is creative, but not always easy. E.g. I hate basketball. كرة السلة ليست افضل رياضاتي – She is ugly. هى ليست جميله بالقدر الكافى Adaptation.
Adaptation occurs when something specific to one language culture is expressed in a totally different way that is familiar or appropriate to another language culture. It is a shift in cultural environment. E.g. She was swimming wearing a hot bikini. كانت تسبح مرتدية ملابس سباحة Compensation.
In general terms compensation can be used when something cannot be translated, and the meaning that is lost is expressed somewhere else in the translated text. E.g. زغردت “ let out a ululation as women do at times of great joy.” البسيها وتعالي خوفى اخوتى الصغار فهم كالعفاريت “ You can put it on and frighten my naughty little brothers.”