What is translation? Describe brief history of translation. Definitions of translation: * The process of translating words or text from one language into another: “Constantine’s translation of Arabic texts into Latin”. * A written or spoken rendering of the meaning of a word, speech, book, or other text, in another language. Term translation refers to several meanings: * It refers to general subject field * The text that has been translated * process What is translation? Translation is the transmittal of written text from one language into another.
Although the terms translation and interpretation are often used interchangeably, by strict definition, translation Refers to the written language, and interpretation to the spoken word. Translation is the action of interpretation of the meaning of a text, and subsequent production of an equivalent text, also called a translation, that communicates the same message in another language. The text to be translated is called the source text, and the language it is to be translated into is called the target language.
Translation must take into account constraints that include context, the rules of grammar of the two languages, their writing conventions, and their idioms. A common misconception is that there exists a simple word-for-word correspondence between any two languages, and that translation is a straightforward mechanical process. A word-for-word translation does not take into account context, grammar, conventions, and idioms. History of translation The practice of translating is long established, the study of the field developed into an academic discipline only in the second half of the twentieth century.
Before that, translation had normally been merely an element of language learning in modern language courses. In fact, from the late eighteenth century to the 1960s, language learning in secondary schools in many countries had come to be dominated by what was known as the grammar-translation method. This method, which was applied to classical Latin and Greek and then to modern foreign languages, centered On the rote study of the grammatical rules and structures of the foreign Language.
In the USA, translation – specifically literary translation – was promoted in universities in the 1960s by the translation workshop concept. Based on I. A. Richards’s reading workshops and practical criticism approach that began in the 1920s and in other later creative writing workshops, these translation workshops were first established in the universities of Iowa and Princeton. They were intended as a platform for the introduction of new translations into the target culture and for the discussion of the finer principles of the translation process and of understanding a text. Comparative literature:
Where literature is studied and compared transnationally and transculturally, necessitating the reading of some literature in translation. Contrastive analysis: Another area in which translation became the subject of research was contrastive analysis. This is the study of two languages in contrast in an attempt to identify general and specific differences between them. Conclusion: The practice of translating is long established but translating studies is a new academic discipline related to the study of the theory and phenomena of translation. This new discipline was established almost 50 years ago.