Jean-Paul Vinay and Jean Darbelnet in their book Stylistique Comparee du Francaiset de l’ Anglais (1958) which is a comparative stylistic analysis of the different translation strategies and procedures used in French and English view equivalence-oriented translation as a procedure which ‘replicates the same situation as in the original, whilst using completely different wording’ They also suggest that, if this procedure is applied during the translation process, it can maintain the stylistic impact of the SL text in the TL text.
With regard to equivalent expressions between language pairs, Vinay and Darbelnet claim that they are acceptable as long as they are listed in a bilingual dictionary as ‘full equivalents’. They talk about ‘direct’ and ‘oblique’ translation where ‘direct’ refers to literal translation and ‘oblique’ refers to free translation. Furthermore, they have proposed seven procedures, the first three covered by direct translation and the remaining four by oblique translation. Direct translation includes the processes of: 1. Borrowing 2. Calque 3. Literal translation Oblique translation includes the processes of: 1. Transposition 2. Modulation.
3. Equivalence 4. Adaptation The discussion to follow will be focusing on the explanation of these seven processes with reference to the novel by Jane Austen Pride and Prejudice ( Source text) and its Urdu translation by Professor Shahid Hameed as “Takkabur or Ta’asub” (Target text). 1. Direct Translation 1. 1. Borrowing Jeremy Munday in his book Introducing Translation Studies says that in borrowing “the SL word is transferred directly to the TL”. It is the idea of taking the word from the source language and maintaining it in the target language.
It is considered the simplest of the procedures and tends to be employed in two situations: either when discussing a new technical process for which no term exists within the target language, or when maintaining a word from the source language for stylistic effect, in which the translator uses the foreign term to add flavor to the target text. The advantage of borrowing strategy is that it brings an original connotation to the word in TL.
1. 2. Calque A calque is when an expression from the source text (ST) is transferred literally into the TT. Calques either follow the syntax of the TL while translating each word literally or ignore the syntax of the TL and maintain the syntax of the SL, rendering the calque in an awkward syntactical structure in the TT. It has the same influence on the enhancement of cultural integration. However, sometimes this translation strategy will cause difficulties in conveying messages in the TL.
1. 3. Literal translation This is word for word translation. Vinay and Darbelnet describe it as being the most common between the languages of the same family and culture. The idea of translating word for word in a way that does not alter the meaning is considered an acceptable use of literal translation by the two scholars.
Vinay and Darbelnet say that literal method is ‘unacceptable’ in these occasions: 1. 3. 1. It gives another meaning 1. 3. 2. It has no meaning 1. 3. 3. It is structurally impossible 2. Oblique Translation 2. 1. Transposition Vinay and Darbelnet referred to transposition as changing word class without changing meaning. This refers to when translators change the word type, such as from nouns to verbs. They considered transposition to be either obligatory or optional, and referred to the ST as the base expression and the TT as the transposed expression. According to Newmark transposition consists of four types of grammatical changes.
The first type concerns word’s form and position, the second type of transposition is usually used when the TL does not have the equal grammatical structure of the SL. Newmark defines the third type as “the one where literal translation is grammatically possible but may not accord with the natural usage in the TL. ” Transposition, here, offers translators a plenty of possible versions. Concerning the fourth type, it occurs when the translator uses a grammatical structure as a way to replace a lexical gap. 2. 2. Modulation The fifth of Vinay and Darbelnet’s procedures is modulation.
Modulation is defined as “a change in point of view that allows us to express the same phenomenon in a different way. ” In other words Modulation refers to rendering the TT from a different point of view to that of the ST. Vinay and Darbelnet consider this procedure to be necessary when the results of the former procedures would produce an awkward- sounding translation, despite it being grammatically, syntactically, and lexically correct. Modulation is a way for the translator to find a degree of naturalness in their TT without sacrificing any meaning or accuracy originating from the ST.
The application of this skill demands very much the translator’s capacity to mastering bilingual languages. 2. 3. Equivalence: It refers to a strategy to describe the same situation by ‘using completely different stylistic or structural methods’ for producing ‘equivalent texts’. Equivalence is not only useful but also necessary in translating idioms and proverbs. 2. 4. Adaptation: It refers to a method ‘used in those cases where the type of situation being referred to by the SL message is unknown in the TL culture’. Rather than operations on linguistic level, this strategy focus on phenomena or practices that are absent in the target culture.