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Translation Literary Translation Essay

Preface This book has been five years in the writing. Sections of it have twice been stolen during travel and have been rewritten, hopeniliy better than the first time – the fond hope of ail writers who have had their MSS lost, stolen or betrayed. Its ‘progress’ has been further interrupted by requests for papers for conferences; four of these papers have been incorporated; others, listed in the bibliography are too specialised for inclusion here. It is not a conventional textbook.

Instead of offering, as originally planned, texts in various languages for you to translate, I have supplied in the appendices examples of translational text analyses, translations with commentaries and translation criticism. They are intended to be helpful illustrations of many points made in the book, and models for you to react against when you do these three stimulating types of exercise. If the book has a unifying element, it is the desire to be useful to the translator, Its various theories are only generalisations of translation practices. The points I make are for you to endorse or to reject, or simply think about.

The special terms I use are explained in the text and in the glossary. I hope you will read this book in conjunction with its predecessor, Approaches to Translation, of which it is in many respects an expansion as well as a revision; in particular, the treatment of institutional terms and of metalanguage is more extensive in the earlier than in this book. I dislike repeating myself writing or speaking, and for this reason I have reproduced say the paper on case grammar, about which at present I haven’t much more to say, and which isn’t easily come by.

This book is not written by a scholar, I once published a controversial piece on Corneille’s Horace in French Studies, and was encouraged to work for a doctorate, but there was too much in the making that didn’t interest me, so 1 gave up. And a German professor refused to review Approaches because it had so many mistakes in the bibliography; which is regrettable (he was asked to point them out, but refused; later, he changed his mind and reviewed the book), but academic detail is not the essential of that or this book either.

I am somewhat of a itteralist’, because I am for truth and accuracy. I think that words as well as sentences and texts have meaning, and that you only deviate from literal translation when there are good semantic and pragmatic reasons for doing so, which is more often than not, except in grey texts. But that doesn’t mean, xt xn I’BEFACh as Alex Brothenon (Amsterdam) has disparagingly written without evidence, that I believe in the * absolute primacy of the word1.

There are no absolutes in translation, everything is conditional, any principle (e. g.accuracy) may be in opposition to another (e. g, economy) or at least there may be tension between them. Much as at times I should like to get rid of the two bugbears of translation, the dear old context and the dear old readership, alas, we never can. lean only go as far as saying that some words in a text are far less context-bound than others; and that some readerships (say of a set of instructions, of which the readership is the reason for its existence) are more important than others (say a lyric, where the poet and his translator) may only be writing for himself.

Again when Halliday writes that language is entirely a social phenomenon and consequently collapses or conflates Biihler’s expressive and appellative functions of language into the interpersonal function, stating that there is no distinction between the first two functions in language, I can only say that this is a matter of beliefor philosophy as the expression of belief, and that I disagree. But all this is to some extent a matter of emphasis (and reaction) rather than (diametrical) opposition.

The single word is getting swamped in the discourse and the individual in the mass of society -1 am trying to reinstate them both, to redress the balance. If people express themselves individually in a certain type of text, translators must also express themselves individually, even if they are told they are only reacting to, and therefore conforming with, social discourse conventions of the time. Writing a book about translation, 1 am aware that this is a new profession, though an old practice, and that the body of knowledge and of assumptions that exists about translation is tentative, often controversial and fluctuating.

This book is intended to be reasonably comprehensive, that is, to discuss most of the issues and problems that come up in translating. (In this aim, at least, the book is original. )

In spite of the controversial nature of several of its chapters, it is therefore designed as a kind of reference book for translators. However, some of the shorter pieces in Chapter 18 are inadequate and can only offer you a few pointers. I hope to expand the book (my last one on translation) for a second edition, and I would welcome suggestions for its improvement, Acknowledgements I warmly thank Pauline Newmark, Elizabeth Newmark and Matthew Newmark, whom I have consulted so frequently;

Vaughan James, who has helped so much at every stage; Vera North, who coped so superbly with the ins and outs of my handwriting; Mary FitzGerald; Sheila Silcock; Margaret Rogers, Louise Hurren; Mary Harrison; Simon Chau, Hans Lindquist, Rene Dirben, Robin Trew, Harold Leyrer, David Harvey. Contents Preface Acknowledgements xi xii Parti 1 2.

Principles Introduction The Analysis of a Text Reading the text The intention of the text The intention of the translator Text styles The readership Stylistic scales Attitude Setting The quality of the writing Connotations and denotations The last reading Conclusion 11 11 12 12 13 13 14 15 15 16 16 17 17 19 19 19 20 22 23 3 The Process of Translation Introduction The relation of translating ro translation theory The approach.

The textual level The referential level v CONTENTS The cohesive level The level of naturalness Combining the four levels The unit of translating The translation of texts The translation of proper names Revision Conclusion 23 24 29 30 32 35 36 37 Language Functions, Text-categories and Text-types The expressive function The informative function The vocative function The aesthetic function The pharic function The metalingual function Translation Methods Introduction The methods Comments on the methods Equivalent effect .

Methods and Lext-categories Translating Other methods 39 39 40 41 42 43 43 45 45 45 47 48 50 51 52 The Unit of Translation and Discourse Analysis Introduction Coherence Titles Dialogue cohesion Punctuation Sound-effects Cohesion Referential synonyms Enumerators Other connectives Functional sentence perspective Contrasts The lower units of translation Conclusion 54 54 55 56 57 58 58 59 59 60 60 60 63 65 66.

CONTENTS vii 68 68 69 70 72 73 73 74 74 75 75 76 77 77 78 80 81 81 82 82 83 83 84 84 85 88 89 90 90 90 90 90 90 91 91 94 95 % 96 97 97 7 Literal Translation Introduction Varieties of close translation The translation of poetry Faithful and false friends Words in their context Elegant variations Back-translation of text (BTT) Accepted translation Constraints on literal translation Natural translation Re-creative translation Literary translation The sub-text The notion of theKno-equivalent1 word The role of context 8

The Other Translation Procedures Transference Naturalisation Cultural equivalent Functional equivalent Descriptive equivalent Synonymy Through-translation Shifts or transpositions Modulation Recognised translation Translation label Compensation Componential analysis Reduction and expansion Paraphrase Other procedures Couplets Notes, additions, glosses 9 Translation and Culture Definitions Cultural categories General considerations Ecology Material culture Vltl CONTENTS Social culture Social organisation – political and administrative Gestures and habits Summary of procedures 98 99 102 103 10.

The Translation of Metaphors Definitions Translating metaphors Types of metaphor 104 106 106 106 11 The Use of Componeniial Analysis in Translation Introduction Lexical words Cultural words Synonyms Sets and series Conceptual terms Neologisms Words as myths Conclusion U4 114 317 119 120 121 121 122 123 123 12 The Application of Case Grammar to Translation Introduction The translation of missing verbs, i. e. verbalforce The translation of case-gaps Various types of case-partner Contrast and choice in translation Some related issues Case partners of adjectives and nouns A remark on Tesniere Conclusion.

125 125 126 129 132 134 135 136 138 138 13 The Translation of Neologisms Introduction Old words with new senses New coinages Derived words Abbreviations Collocations Eponyms Phrasai words 140 140 141 142 143 145 145 146 147 CONTENTS }X Transferred words Acronyms Pseudo-neologisms The creation of neologisms A frame of reference for the translation of neologisms 147 148 148 149 150 14 Technical Translation Introduction Technical style Terms Varieties of technical style Technical and descriptive terms Beginning technical translation Translation method The title Going through the text Conclusion Appendix; sampletest.

151 151 151 152 152 153 154 L55 156* 158 IfrO 161 15 The Translation of Serious Literature and Authoritative Statements Introduction Poetry The short story/novel Drama Conclusion 162 162 162 170 172 173 16 Reference Boohs and their Uses; Tracing the’Unfindable’ Word Introduction Resources [ Unfindables words 174 174 175 176 17 Translation Criticism Introduction Planofcriticism Text analysts The translator’s purpose Comparing the translation with the original The evaluation of the translation The translation’s future Marking a translation Quality in translation.

184 184 186 186 186 ! 87 188 189 189 192 X CONTENTS 18 Shorter Items Words and context The translation of dialect You and the computer Function and description The translation of eponyms and acronyms Familiar alternative terms When and how to improve a text Collocations The translation of proper names The translation of puns ¦ The translation of weights, measures, quantities and currencies Ambiguity 193 193 194 195 198 198 201 204 212 214 217 217 218 221 225 19 20 Revision Hints for Exams and Deadlines By Way of a Conclusion Part II Methods.

Introductory note Test 1 Tower needs clear eyes1, The Economist Text 2 ‘Vppcr gastroint^imal endoscopy1, British Medical Journal Text 3 Brideshead Revisited (Waugh) Text 4 4Une certaine idee de la France’ (De Gaulle) Text 5 4Le Parti Socialiste’ (Source unknown) Text 6 Ala Recherche du Temps Perdu (Proust)

Text 7 ‘Presentation d’un cas de toxoplasmose’, Bordeaux Medical Text 8 ‘Dialysebehandlung bei akutem Nierenversagen’, Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrifi Text 9 Alexander von Humboldt (Hein) Text 10 VAdoraticm (BoreL) Text 11 Die Blasse Anna (Boll) Text 12 La SocUti Francaise (Dupeux) Text 13 ‘ZumWohlealler\SC,4Z^.

229 231 234 238 242 245 248 250 254 259 264 267 272 277 Glossary Abbreviations Medical terminology BihHograpky Name index Subject index 282 286 288 289 291 292 PART I Principles Figures appear in Part I as follows: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 The dynamics of translation A functional theory of language Language functions, text-categories and text-types The Translation of metaphor Scalar diagrams Equation diagram Matrix diagram Parallel tree diagram ¦ * 20 40 105 116 116 117 117 CHAPTER 1 Introduction.

My purpose in this book is to offer a course in translation principles and methodology for final-year-degree and post-graduate classes as well as for autodidacts and home learners. Further, I have in mind that I am addressing non-English as well as English students, and I will provide some appropriate English texts and examples to work on. 1 shall assume that you, the reader, are learning to translate into your language of habitual use, since that is the only way you can translate naturally, accurately and with maximum effectiveness.

In fact, however, most translators do translate out of theii own language (‘service’ translation) and contribute greatly to many people’s hilarity in the process. Further, I shall assume that you have a degree-level ‘reading and comprehension’ ability in one foreign language and a particular interest in one of the three main areas of translation: (a) science and technology, (b) social, economic and/or political topics and institutions, and (c) literary and philosophical works. Normally, only (a) and (b) provide a salary; (c) is free-lance work.

Bear in mind, however, that knowing a foreign language and your subject is not as important as being sensitive to language and being competent to write your own language dexterously, clearly, economically and resourcefully. Experience with translationese, for example, Strauss’ Opus 29 stands under the star of Bierbaum who in his lyric poems attempted to lie in the echoes of the German love poetry with ihe folk song and with the impressionistic changes, Opus 29 &tekt im Zekhen Bkrboums, der als Lyriker versuchtet Nachklange des Mintwsangs mil dem Volkslied und mit impressicmistischen XPendungen zu verknupfen.

(Record sleeve note) shows that a good writer can often avoid not only errors of usage but mistakes of fact and language simply by applying his common sense and showing sensitivity to language. Being good at writing has little to do with being good at ‘essays’, or at ‘English 1 as you may have learned it at school.

It means being able to use the 3 4 PRINCIPLES appropriate words in the appropriate order for the obiect or process you are attempting to describe; continuously trying to improve your writing (a translation is never finished); and increasing your own English vocabulary co-extensively with your knowledge of new facts and new foreign-language words.

And it means making flexible use of the abundant grammatical resources of your language, which are enriched by contemporary speech. It is something which, like translation, you can learn: you are not born a good writer; you do not have to be one now; you have to be determined to become one, to relate new experience to fresh language.

Finallyj it means having a sense of order and pertinence – learning to construct a specific {gezieh, purposeful) beginning, body and conclusion for your subject: a beginning that defines and sets the subject out; a ‘body1 that gives and illustrates the pros and cons of the argument; a conclusion that states your own verdict — and all without irrelevance. A translator has to have a flair and a feel for his own language. There is nothing mystical about this ‘sixth sense’, but it is compounded of intelligence, sensitivity and intuition, as well as of knowledge.

This sixth sense, which often comes into play (joue) during a final revision, tells you when to translate literally, and also, instinctively, perhaps once in a hundred or three hundred words, when to break all the ‘rules’ of translation, when to translate malheur by ‘catastrophe* in a seventeenth-centurv text, I cannot make you into a good translator; I cannot cause you to write well. The best I can do is to suggest to you some general guidelines for translating.

I shall propose a way of analysing the source language text; I shall discuss the two basic translation methods; and I shall set out the various procedures for handling texts, sentences and other units. I shall at times discuss the relation between meaning, language, culture and translation. By offering plenty of examples I hope to provide enough practice for you to improve your performance as a translator. 9 The trmhvthe facts of the matter) SL writer 2 SL norms TEXT 10 Translator 5 TL relationship 6 TL norms 3 SL culture 4 SL setting and tradition Figure I.

The dynamics of translation 7 TL culture 8 TL setting and tradition INTRODUCTION 5 What is translation? Often, though not by any means always, it is rendering the meaning of a text into another language in the way that the author intended the text. Common sense tells us that this ought to be simple, as one ought to be able to say something as well in one language as in another.

On the other hand, you may see it as complicated, artificial and fraudulent, since by using another language you are pretending to be someone you are not. Hence in many types of text (legal, administrative, dialect, local, cultural) the temptation is to transfer as many SL (Source Language) words to the TL (Target Language) as possible.

The pity is, as Mounin wrote, that the translation cannot simply reproduce, or be, the original. And since this is so, the first business of the translator is to translate. A texi may therefore be pulled in ten different directions, as follows: (1) The individual style or idiolect of the SL author. When should it be (a) preserved, (b) normalised? (2) The conventional grammatical and lexical usage for this type of text, depending on the topic and the situation. (3) Content items referring specifically to the SL, or third language (i. e, not SL or TL) cultures.

(4) The typical format of a text in a book, periodical, newspaper, etc. , as influenced by tradition at the time. (5) The expectations of the putative readership, bearing in mind their estimated knowledge of the topic and the style of language they use, expressed in terms of the largest common factor, since one should not translate down (or up) to the readership, (6), (7), (8) As for 2,3 and 4 respectively, but related to the TL, (9) What is being described or reported, ascertained or verified (the referential truth), where possible independently of the SL text and the expectations of the readership.

(10) The views and prejudices of the translator, which may be personal and subjective, or may be social and cultural, involving the translator’s ‘group loyalty factor*, which may reflect the national, political, ethnic, religious, social class, sex, etc. assumptions of the translator. Needless to say, there are many other tensions in translations, for example between sound and sense, emphasis (word order) and naturalness (grammar), the figurative and the literal, neatness and comprehensiveness, concision and accuracy.

Figure 1 shows how many opposing forces pull the translation activity {Vactivitti traduisante) in opposite directions.

The diagram is not complete. There is often a tension between intrinsic and communicative, or, if you like, between semantic and pragmatic meaning. When do you translate Ilfaitfroid as ‘It’s cold1 and when as ‘I’m cold’, Tm freezing1, Tm so cold’, etc,, when that is what it means in the context? All of which suggests that translation is impossible. Which is not so. Why a book of this sort? Because I think there is a body of knowledge about translation which, if applied to solving translation problems, can contribute to a translator’s training.

Translation as a profession practised in international organi- 6 PRINCIPLES sations, government departments, public companies and translation agencies (now often called translation companies) began only about thirty years ago; even now, the idea that ail languages (there are 4000) are of equal value and importance, and that everyone has a right to speak and write his own language, whether it is a national or a minority language (most countries are at least *bilinguaP) is not generally recognised.

Translation as a profession has to be seen as a collaborative process between translators, revisers, terminologists, often writers and clients (literary works have to be checked by a second native TL reviser and desirably a native SL speaker), where one works towards a general agreement. Nevertheless, finally, only one person can be responsible for one piece or section of translation; it must have the stamp of one style.

The principle with which this book starts is that everything without exception is translatable; the translator cannot afford the luxury of saying that something cannot be translated, Danila Seleskovitch, a brilliant interpreter and writer, has said: ‘Everything said in one language can be expressed in another – on condition that the two languages belong to cultures that have reached a comparable degree of development/ The condition she makes is false and misleading.

Translation is an instrument of education as well as of truth precisely because it has to reach readers whose cultural and educational level is different from, and often ‘lower’ or earlier, than, that of the readers of the original – one has in mind computer technology for Xhosas. ‘Foreign1 communities have their own language structures and their own cultures, ‘foreign’ individuals have their own way of thinking and therefore of expressing themselves, but all these can be explained, and as a last resort the explanation is the translation.

No language, no culture is so ‘primitive’ that it cannot embrace the terms and the concepts of, say, computer technology or plainsong, But such a translation is a longer process if it is in a language whose culture does not include computer technology. If it is to cover ail the points in the source language text, it requires greater space in the target language text. There-fore, whilst translation is always possible, it may for various reasons not have the same impact as the original.

Translation has its own excitement, its own interest. A satisfactory translation is always possible, but a good translator is never satisfied with it. It can usually be improved. There is no such thing as a perfect, ideal or ^correct’ translation, A translator is always trying to extend his knowledge and improve his means of expression; he is always pursuing facts and words.

He works on four levels: translation is first a science, which entails the knowledge and verification of the facts and the larguage that describes them- here, what is wrong, mistakes of truth, can be identified; secondly, it is a skill, which calls for appropriate language and acceptable usage; thirdly, an art, which distinguishes good from undistinguished writing and is the creative, the intuitive, sometimes the inspired, level of the translation; lastly, a matter of taste, where argument ceases, preferences are expressed, and the variety of meritorious translations is the reflection of individual differences.

Whilst accepting that a few good translators (like a few good actors) are INTRODUCTION 7 ‘naturals’, I suggest that the practical demands on translators are so wide, and the subject still so wrapped up in pointless arguments about its feasibility, that it would benefit students of translation and would-be translators to follow a course based on a wide variety of texts and examples. This book claims to be useful, not essential.

It attempts to set up a framework of reference for an activity that serves as a means of communication, a transmitter of culture, a technique (one of many, to be used with discretion) of language learning, and a source of personal pleasure.

As a means of communication, translation is used for multilingual notices, which have at last appeared increasingly conspicuously in public places; for instructions issued by exporting companies; for tourist publicity, where it is too often produced from the native into the ‘foreign’ language by natives as a matter of national pride; for official documents, such as treaties and contracts; for reports, papers, articles, correspondence? textbooks to convey information, advice and recommendations for every branch of knowledge.

Its volume has increased with the rise of the mass media, the increase in the number of independent countries, and the growing recognition of the importance of linguistic minorities in all the countries of the world.

Its importance is highlighted by the mistranslation of the Japanese telegram sent to Washington just before the bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, when mokasuiu was allegedly translated as ‘ignored’ instead of ‘considered’, and by the ambiguity in UN Resolution 242, where ‘the withdrawal from occupied territories’ was translated as le retrait des tmitoires occupes, and therefore as a reference to all of the occupied territory to be evacuated by the Israelis.

Translation has been instrumental in transmitting culture, sometimes under unequal conditions responsible for distorted and biased translations, ever since countries and languages have been in contact with each other. Thus the Romans ‘pillaged* Greek culture; the Toledo School transferred Arabic and Greek learning to Europe; and up to the nineteenth century European culture was drawing heavily on Latin and Greek translations.

In the nineteenth century German culture was absorbing Shakespeare, In this century a centrifugal world literature has appeared, consisting of the work of a small number of ‘international* writers (Greene, Bellow, Solzhenitsyn, Boll, Grass, Moravia, Murdoch, Lessing, amongst those still living, succeeding Mann, Brecht, Kafka, Mauriac, Valery, etc. )* which is translated into most national and many regional languages.

Unfortunately there is no corresponding centripetal cultural movement from ‘regional’ or peripheral authors. That translation is not merely a transmitter of culture, but also of the-truth, a force for progress, could be instanced by following the course of resistance to Bible translation and the preservation of Latin as a superior language of the elect, with a consequent disincentive to translating between other languages.

As a technique for learning foreign languages, translation is a two-edged instrument: it has the special purpose of demonstrating the learner’s knowledge of the foreign language, either as a form of control or to exercise his intelligence in order to develop his competence. This is its strong point in foreign-language classes, which has to be sharply distinguished from its normal use in transferring meanings and conveying messages.

The translation done in schools, which as a 8 PRINCIPLES discipline is unfortunately usually taken for granted and rarely discussed, often encourages absurd, stilted renderings, particularly of colloquial passages including proper names and institutional terms (absurdly encouraged by dictionary mistranslations such as Giacopo for ‘James1 and Siaatsrat for Trivy Councillor’). Even a sentence such as: Qu’une maillc $auiat parfois a ce nssu de perfection auquel Brigitte Finn travailinit uvec une vigilance de toutes les seamdes, detail dans Yordre et elle s’en consolait pourvu que cefut sans temotn.

‘Mauriac, l.a Phanstenne^ might produce something like this from a sixth-former: That a stitch should sometimes break in that tissue of perfection at which Brigitte Pian was working with a vigilance to which she devoted every second, this was in order and she consoled herself for it provided it was without witness, which proves that each word construction is understood, where a more likely reading would be:

If Brigitte Pian sometimes dropped a stitch in the admirable material she was working on with such unremitting vigilance, it was in the natural order of things and she found consolation for it, provided she had no witnesses.

A translator, perhaps more than any other practitioner of a profession, is continually faced with choices, for instance when he has to translate words denoting quality, the words of the mental world (adjectives, adverbs, adjectival nouns, e. g. ‘good’, ‘well*, ‘goodness’), rather than objects or events. In making his choice, he is intuitively or consciously following a theory of translation, just as any teacher of grammar teaches a theory of linguistics. La traduction appelle une theorie en acte, Jean-Rene Ladmiral has written.

Translation calls on a theory in action; the translator reviews the criteria for the various options before he makes his selection as a procedure in his translating activity. The personal pleasure derived from translation is the excitement of trying to solve a thousand small problems in the context of a large one. Mystery, jigsaw, game, kaleidoscope, maze, puzzle, see-saw, juggling- these metaphors capture the ‘play1 element of translation without its seriousness. (But pleasure lies in play rather than i 1 seriousness. ) The chase after words and facts is unremitting and requires imagination.

There is an exceptional attraction in the search for the right word, just out of reach, the semantic gap between two languages that one scours Roget to fill. The relief of finding it, the ‘smirk* after hitting on the right word when others are still floundering? is an acute reward, out of proportion and out of perspective to the satisfaction of filling in the whole picture, but more concrete.

The quality of pleasure reflects the constant tension between sentence and word. You may have heard of a relatively new polytechnic/university subject called Translation Theory (Translatology1 in Canada, Traductologia in Spain, (Iter-INTRODUCTION 9 setzungswissenschaft in German-speaking countries, Translation Studies’ in the Netherlands and Belgium); this book is intended to introduce it to you.

In a narrow sense, translation theory is concerned with the translation method appropriately used for a certain type of text, and it is therefore dependent on a functional theory of language. However, in a wider sense, translation theory is the body of knowledge that we have about translating, extending from general principles to guidelines, suggestions and hints.

(The only rule I know is the equal frequency rule, viz, that corresponding words, where they exist – metaphors, collocations, groups, clauses, sentences, word order, proverbs, etc. – should have approximately equal frequency, for the topic and register in question, in both the source and target languages.)

Translation theory is concerned with minutiae (the meanings of semi-colons, italics, misprints) as well as generalities (presentation, the thread of thought underlying a piece), and both may be equally important in the context.

Translation theory in action, translation theory used operationally for the purpose of reviewing all the options (in particular, sensitising the translator to those he had not been aware of) and then making the decisions – in fact the teeth of the theory – is a frame of reference for translation and translation criticism, relating first to complete texts, where it has most to say, then, in descending level, to paragraphs, sentences, clauses, word groups (in particular, collocations), words -familiar alternative words, cultural and institutional terms, proper names, 1 non-equivalent words’, neologisms and key conceptual terms – morphemes and punctuation marks.

Note that metaphor, perhaps the most significant translation problem, may occur at all levels – from word to text, at which level it becomes an allegory or a fantasy. What translation theory does is, first, to identify and define a translation problem (no problem – no translation theory!); second, to indicate all the factors that have to be taken into account in solving the problem; third, to list all the possible translation procedures; finally, to recommend the most suitable translation procedure, plus the appropriate translation.

Translation theory is pointless and sterile if it does not arise from the problems of translation practice, from the need to stand back and reflect, to consider all the factors, within the text and outside it, before coming to a decision, I close this chapter by enumerating the new elements in translation nov.\ as opposed to, say, at the beginning of the century: (1)

The emphasis on the readership and the setting, and therefore on naturalness, ease of understanding and an appropriate register, when these factors are appropriate. (2) Expansion of topics beyond the religious, the literary and the scientific to technology, trade, current events, publicity, propaganda, in fact to virtually every topic of writing. (3) Increase in variety of text formats, from books (including plays and poems) to articles, papers, contracts, treaties, laws, notices, instructions, advertisements, 10 PRINCIPLES (4) (5) (6) (7) publicity, recipes, letters, reports, business forms, documents, etc.

These now vastly outnumber books, so it is difficult to calculate the number or the languages of translations on any large scale. Standardisation of terminology. The formation of translator teams and the recognition of the reviser’s role. The impact of linguistics, sociolinguistics and translation theory, which will.

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