The purpose of this study was to identify the training needs among employees of Public sector bank. In the current dynamic business environment training has become indispensable. The biggest challenge of human resource managers is to train the employees to produce desired results. In the cyclical process of training, training needs analysis is the first step which analyses the areas where training is essential. Total 100 respondents responded to the pre-tested questionnaire, for which Cronbach’s Alpha was calculated to confirm its reliability, which resulted in the score of 0.860. The major findings and evaluation have been done by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS).The findings can be used to design future competency based training programs. Keywords: Performance, Skills, Training, Training needs.
The banking sector in the recent years has been undergoing intense structural and organizational changes, globally. The trend towards globalization of financial markets and services and deregulation of domestic banking systems has been the driving forces behind the drastic change in this sector. The Information technology era has enabled development of new financial instruments, decentralization of work and decision making responsibilities. The extensive competition, greater demand for providing better product and services, dynamic business environment prevailing in the commercial banking sector has increased more demand from employees in order to meet the requirements the above all has posed critical challenges for employees and HR managers in particular. Thus, training is no longer considered a casual phenomenon or holiday for a selected few; instead it ought to be a process of human resource development for fulfillment of defined objectives (Khandelwal, 1978).
And to achieve the desired results transformation in the context and mechanism of training programs becomes indispensable (Lynton and Pareek, 1990).“Training” refers to a systematic approach to learning and development to improve individual, team, and organizational effective-ness (Goldstein & Ford 2002). Denby (2010) explains that training helps to expand the scope of available skills within the workforce and improve expertise and adds enhancing the capabilities of the team supports retention.
Every organization strives to achieve their objectives, and in banking sector the major goals include maximizing funds and improve the level of services. And the most desirable goal is to improve employee’ performance which results in overall organizational performance. In current scenario, to achieve sustainable competitive advantage, sustaining customers by delivering high quality service becomes essential. To achieve all the above mentioned objectives training the bank employees becomes vital. Every training program starts with an analysis of training needs. Identifying training needs of employees is considered to be an essential requirement to design an effective training program and it also contributes to the training strategy of an organization.
II. Purpose And Importance Of Identifying Training Needs
In the stages of the systematic training cycle, Identifying training needs and its analysis is the important first stage and following stages of the cycle are training design, training delivery and training evaluation respectively.” Identifying training needs must be carefully planned, conducted and have clear outcomes to ensure that training interventions are implemented effectively and that they lead to meaningful changes in service delivery”(Gould D, Kelly D, White I, 2010). Training can be considered successful only it is implemented to match and complement the business needs and objectives. The assessment begins with a “needs” which can be identified in several ways but is generally described as a gap between what is currently in place and what is needed, now and in the future. ).
“The rationale for developing a training program relies heavily on identifying training needs, and justifying the costs and benefits to the organization. Without a clear understanding of needs, training efforts are at best randomly useful or at worst, useless. The trainer will only be successful and perceived as such to the extent that needs are carefully assessed, and programs developed and carried out that meet those needs” (Brown, 2002). Identifying the training needs serve as the key to cost effectiveness, and it also serve as valuable part of the development and growth of a business (Andy Taylor, 2009).
Identifying and Analyzing training needs is a part of an ongoing cyclic process (Andrew Knowles, 2009) and also states that with clear understanding of what is to be achieved and some knowledge of organization itself, training needs analysis on staff can be performed within the organization to identify learning needs. In a very recent study Stanley (2010) states that common types of needs analysis focus on surveys, collecting questionnaires, data from supervisors, observing and formally or informally interviewing employees and analyzing employee’s performance tests and productivity reports. Thus, surveying, interviewing and testing the employees can help to determine the training needs and in this study we attempt to identify training needs of clerical staff employees of public sector banks through a well-constructed questionnaire.
III. Review of Literature
Human resource development is defined as ‘the process of increasing the capacity of the human resources through development. It is thus a pro cess of adding value to individuals, organization as a human system’ (Mclagan, 1989). Though all practices of personnel management results in development of human resources, but to prepare qualified, flexible, and well prepared employees training is considered as the central activity (Bartel, 1994). Training, in this regard, is seen as a very much useful among all human resource management practices for coping with ever increasing expectations of various facets of customers in retail banks. Noe (2009) states that training is a planned effort by a company to facilitate employees learning of job-related capabilities.
These competencies include knowledge, skill, or behaviours that are critical for successful job performance. Donald Kirkpatrick (1994) classical model which has acquired wide acceptance over the years identifies four level of training evaluation; Level One – Reaction, Level Two – Learning, Level three – Behaviour and Level Four – Result. The training system comprises of inputs, process and outcomes (Ziderman, 1997). Training-related changes should result in im-proved job performance and other positive changes (e.g., acquisition of new skills; Hill & Lent 2006, Satterfield & Hughes 2007) that serve as antecedents of job performance (Kraiger 2002).
Leigh, et al., (2000) stresses that assessing and analysing training needs is important because this builds the foundation by identifying the kinds of HRD intervention needed for an effective effort.“Analyzing training needs provides a focus and direction for the investment an organization has to make in its people” (Bartram & Gibson, 1994). “Many businesses face the prospect of wasting valuable training budget because they do not know how to accurately identify what their internal needs are, and thus cannot design the most suitable training and enhancement program” (Denby, 2010).Success of training depends on positive attitude of the employees about participating in the training activities (Noe & Colquitt, 2002). Additionally, Reid (1986) states “The quality of training can be no better than the quality that the analysis permits”
IV. Objectives of the study
The research objective of this study includes:
* It collects and analyse the various views expressed by bank employees in favour of training needs. * Identification of degree to which employee’s need training on certain factors. * Examination of the differences in training needs between male and female employees.
V. Study Hypothesis
H1: There is an association between the Number of training programs attended by employees and their view that analytical skills require high degree of importance from the aspect of training.
H1: There is statistically significant difference between the length of service of the respondents in the preference towards training on advanced computer skills, planning skills and perpetual skills respectively.
A pre tested questionnaire was administered to 100 public sector bank employees of clerical grade in Chennai, Tamilnadu .The response received from the employees through the questionnaire were analysed using simple percentage analysis, chi square test, one way ANOVA test and inter correlation analysis.
VII. Results and analysis
In relations to the objective of the study, questions in the questionnaire were designed to recognize to what degree the employees think the training program provided by the bank should focus on following factors ;Interpersonal skills, Oral communication skills, Written communication skills, Public speaking skills, Mentoring skills, Teaching/Training skills, Supervising skills,
Leadership skills, Negotiating skills, Client service skills, Analytical/logical thinking skills, Creativity, Decision making, Planning skills, Administrative/Clerical skills, financial skills, Advanced Computer skills, Technological skills,
Performing skills, Perceptual skills, Stress Management Skills. In the following analysis we use chi-square and one way ANOVA to prove the formulated hypothesis mentioned above.
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Topic: Training in Banking Sector
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