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Traffic Management Essay

INTRODUCTION

With the increase in urbanization, many cities around the world are experiencing a very rapid growth in the number of vehicles which lead to serious traffic congestion problems. This places a greater demand on operating roadway systems with maximum efficiency. One major factor that affects the traffic flow is the management of the traffic at road intersections. Hence a good traffic management system is needed to maximize the efficiency of the traffic flow. “Traffic Signal” mainly controls the traffic at various junctions. This is specialized software designed to control heavy traffic very easily by changing the lights at regular intervals. The project “Traffic Signal Management” facilitates easy control of heavy traffic which uses three lights Red, Yellow and Green. The lights used to indicate the signaling. A flashing RED light indicates STOP. YELLOW indicates BE READY and lastly GREEN indicates GO. Lights changes automatically at regular intervals of time.

This task is done by using separate variables for each light. Firstly, RED light appears for 21 seconds i.e. it appears from count equal to 25 to 3. Next when count becomes 3 RED automatically changes to YELLOW and it glows for 4 seconds i.e. up to count becomes 0.When count becomes 0,light changes automatically to GREEN and it glows for 25 seconds. This process is continued for easy flow of traffic. The main asset of the project is to avoid any sort of Accidents. The ever increasing number of vehicles in most metropolitan cities around the world and the limitation in altering the transportation infrastructure, led to serious traffic congestion and an increase in the travelling time. In this work we exploit the emergence of novel technologies such as the internet, to design an intelligent Traffic Management System (TMS) that can remotely monitor and control a network of traffic light controllers located at different sites.

1.1OBJECTIVE

The ever increasing number of vehicles in most metropolitan cities around the world and the limitation in altering the transportation infrastructure, led to serious traffic congestion and an increase in the travelling time. In this work we exploit the emergence of novel technologies such as the internet, to design an intelligent Traffic Management System (TMS) that can remotely monitor and control a network of traffic light controllers located at different sites. Traffic Signal Management is the design of a traffic signal which controls the traffic. The project “Traffic Signal Management” facilitates easy control of heavy traffic which uses three lights :Red, Yellow and Green .The lights used to indicate the signaling. A flashing RED light indicates STOP. YELLOW indicates BE READY and lastly GREEN indicates GO .

With the increase in urbanization, many cities around the world are experiencing a very rapid growth in the number of vehicles which lead to serious traffic congestion problems. This places a greater demand on operating roadway systems with maximum efficiency. One major factor that affects the traffic flow is the management of the traffic at road intersections. Hence a good traffic management system is needed to maximize the efficiency of the traffic flow. In traditional TMS, each intersection is controlled by its own controller which sends signals to the intersection’s traffic lights for changing their states.

1.2 SCOPE

The scope of our project is to find out the available technologies an there drawbacks and to utilize the emerging to design a Smart traffic management system that can remotely control and monitor the traffic at various intersections simultaneously. Traffic management is the planning, monitoring and control or influencing of traffic. It aims to: • Maximize the effectiveness of the use of existing infrastructure; • Ensure reliable and safe operation of transport;

• Address environmental goals. • Ensure fair allocation of infrastructure space (road space, rail slots, etc.) among competing users. It is therefore an essential element in increasing the efficiency and safety of transport networks and operations .The system is aimed at improving the traditional by incorporating better management and monitoring schemes as well as providing road users with real time information. In this project we exploit the emergence of novel technologies such as the internet, to design an intelligent Traffic Management System that can remotely monitor and control a network of traffic light controllers located at different sites. The main crux of this project is to reduce the traffic jams at heavy traffic junctions. Lights glowing at regular intervals of time facilitate easy flow and control of the traffic.

On a broader scale, strategic traffic management involves managing whole networks at a macro level (overall operational policy), as well as integrating or linking different networks. For public transport – whether by road or rail – the scope includes fleet management and timetabling, matching services and vehicles to meet demand and providing socially essential services while also fitting in with (or finding ways to improve) constraints caused by network capacity, driver shift patterns and technical aspects. Traffic management involves the allocation of infrastructure (road space or train slots on a railway network) according to strategic operational and policy goals.

These include efficiency, safety, environmental, economic and equity objectives. In real terms, meeting them may encompass measures that include giving priority to buses, trains or other vehicles such as emergency services or high occupancy vehicles, increasing space available for pedestrians and cyclists, or providing shared road space. Traffic signals and railway signaling are perhaps the earliest form of ”intelligent” traffic management, aimed primarily at safety but also at managing priorities at junctions. The phasing and coordination of road traffic signals in urban areas via a control centre is still the most widespread tool for the effective management of street networks.

1.3 SALIENT FEATURES

* Traffic Management System offers a low cost solution to the needs of tomorrow’s traffic management.

* Managing the congestion efficiently to ensure smooth traffic flow.

* To design a smart traffic system for detecting traffic congestion in real time.

* To reduce the traffic jams at heavy traffic junctions.

* Lights glowing at regular intervals of time facilitate easy flow and control of the traffic.

* Advance traffic alerts.

* LED traffic signals which control traffic as well as speed of the vehicles using sensors. *

1.3 BROAD OUTLINE OF THE PROJECT

Traffic congestion on major overland road and rail corridors and in urban areas, the need to improve The balance between different transport modes, and the needs to improve safety and mitigate the impact Of transport on the environment are some of the key challenges set out. . Traffic management applications Can increase the efficiency of networks, reduce the need to build new infrastructure, enhance driving And travelling comfort and also help to increase safety and security, as well as tackling wasteful and Socially harmful transport patterns in the interests of environmental and social sustainability. Traffic management has long existed in one form or another, from the early days of railway signaling or traffic lights on city streets, but the development and implementation of sophisticated integrated applications based on Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) has grown apace in recent years, as a result of successful Research and technological advances.

This has been pushed by realization of the need to manage transport networks more effectively in order to maximize the use of existing infrastructure, provide a reliable service to the end user and increase safety, while reducing negative environmental effect. Urban and interurban traffic management research and applications are covered in this publication, including aspects such as network management, public transport priority, safety, punctuality and international traffic.

As safety is a very broad area, it is only covered very selectively where it directly relates to traffic management, for instance speed management. Similarly, although infrastructure pricing is a form of transport management, it is a distinct topic and not covered in this Policy Brochure. Traffic signals and railway signaling are perhaps the earliest form of ”intelligent” traffic management, aimed primarily at safety but also at managing priorities at junctions. The phasing and coordination of road traffic signals in urban areas via a control centre is still the most widespread too.

1.5 ABOUT SUBSEQUENT CHAPTERS

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION: Description of the project is given. That is, what was the problem faced in the early software’s and how we can overcome those problems. And many possible outcomes are being provided .whole descriptions of the project have been provided, that is, the functionalities of the project. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE SURVEY: Describes literature survey being done by the developers at the start of the project or before starting the project. It consists of the architecture being used. It consists of web server reports, industry analyst report and network cost. Demand for traffic management system among various countries been increased.. This chapter also describes background details, need of traffic management system & technology used.

CHAPTER 3 ANALYSIS: This chapter has been organized into analysis of conception phase which includes problem definition & solution, feasibility study then requirement analysis where all the major requirements like functional, non-functional, software, hardware & operating system requirements for the designing of the software has been described, followed designing.

CHAPTER 4 DESIGN&IMPLEMENTATION: In this chapter design, implementation and testing comes where how the implementation of various modules has been done and various types of testing for those modules has been done. Designing consists of use case diagram, data flow diagram. CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION: This chapter concludes the overall description of our project in brief. It also explains briefly limitations, future enhancements, references.

CHAPTER 3
ANALYSIS
3.1 CONCEPTION PHASE

3.1.1 Problem definition:-
One major factor that affects the traffic flow is the management of the traffic at road intersections. The density of traffic in India’s major cities has soared over the last few years, bringing with it inevitable gridlock and a pressing need to resolve the situation. As incomes in the country rise, so the car manufacturing industry has taken off. Traffic is growing four times faster than the population. With the increased vehicle numbers comes the need to keep them moving and so the government has responded with the introduction of and Smart Traffic Management System. The traffic of a city impacts all aspects of its citizens’ economic and personal activities. At a general level, the traffic problem is understood as a situation of mismatch between supply (i.e., roads and their capacity) and demands (i.e., travel needs).

Solution:

In this work we exploit the emergence technologies such as the internet, to design and Smart Traffic Management System that can remotely monitor and control a network of traffic light controllers located at different sites. Traffic management is the planning, monitoring and control or influencing of traffic. It aims to maximize the effectiveness of the use of existing infrastructure ensure reliable and safe operation of transport; address environmental goals and ensure fair allocation of infrastructure space (road space, rail slots, etc.) among competing users. A good traffic management system is needed to maximize the efficiency of the traffic flow. Traffic management applications can increase the efficiency of networks, reduce the need to build new infrastructure, enhance driving and travelling comfort and also help to increase safety and security, as well as tackling wasteful and socially harmful transport patterns in the interests of environmental and social sustainability.

3.1.2 Feasibility Study:
Feasibility study describe one or more design solutions to a specific problem and determine if the proposed solution is practical and feasible. Preferably, more than one solution is offered, in which case the report compares the various designs and determines which option is best. A feasibility report will often present several possible designs. In our project we exploit the emergence of technologies such as the internet, to design and Smart Traffic Management System that can remotely monitor and control a network of traffic light controllers located at different sites.

3.2 Requirement Analysis:

3.3.1 Requirement Specification: We are describing hardware & software requirements briefly. * Hardware Requirement:  * New microchip PIC18F97J60: Low power consumption , operates at 10 MIPS/40 MHz * The traffic signals LEDs (three signals per road: Red, yellow, green) and the two traffic sensing switches. Software Requirement:

* A decision algorithm for operating the traffic signals on the intersection of two main roads. * The source code for controlling the traffic at the intersection is written in C language and loaded into the on-chip flash ROM. * Operating System:- Windows xp /vista/7 with Web Services.

3.2.1.2 GOALS:
The goal of our project is to design and Smart Traffic Management System that can remotely monitor and control a network of traffic light controllers located at different sites. To select a specific node to monitor the sequence of operation of the traffic lights and the presence of traffic at each intersection as well as remotely controlling the operation of the signals. To maximize the efficiency of the traffic flow. The proposed system offers a low cost solution to the needs of tomorrow’s traffic management. The main crux of this project is to reduce the traffic jams at heavy traffic junctions. Lights glowing at regular intervals of time facilitate easy flow and control of the traffic.

3.2.1.3 FUNCTIONAL AND NON FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS:

Functional requirements: A functional requirement defines a function of a software system or its component. A function is described as a set of inputs, the behavior, and output. Functional requirements may be calculations, technical details, data manipulation and processing and other specific functionality that define what a system is supposed to accomplish.

* A circuit board with LEDs arranged like traffic lights around the two road intersection. * Two switches for sensing traffic flow in each direction is interfaced with each node controller. * Each node is also equipped with Alpha-numeric LCD Display that emulates a Variable Message Sign used to display traffic information about special events such as traffic congestion, road works, speed limits or accidents. * New microchip PIC18F97J60 microcontroller which operates at 10 MIPS/40 MHz . * RISC CPU with integrated 10BASE-T Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) controller and peripheral on chip. * External SRAM is required for buffering incoming data.

* External flash memory is needed to store the html web information and the traffic signal control application software. * Microcontroller has also a built-in 8 KB Dedicated Ethernet Buffer. * Traffic signal, sensors, LCD 128KB Program Flash to store the TCP/IP stack as well as the traffic monitoring and control application.

3.4 PLANNING PHASE

Project planning is part of project management, which relates to the use of schedules such as Gantt charts to plan and subsequently report progress within the project environment. Initially, the project scope is defined and the appropriate methods for completing the project are determined. Following this step, the durations for the various tasks necessary to complete the work are listed and grouped into a work breakdown structure. The logical dependencies between tasks are defined using an activity network diagram that enables identification of the criticalpath. Float or slack time in the schedule can be calculated using project management software. Then the necessary resources can be estimated and costs for each activity can be allocated to each resource, giving the total project cost.

At this stage, the project plan may be optimized to achieve the appropriate balance between resource usage and project duration to comply with the project objectives. Once established and agreed, the plan becomes what is known as the baseline. Progress will be measured against the baseline throughout the life of the project. Analyzing progress compared to the baseline is known as earned value management. The inputs of the project planning phase include Project Charter and the Concept Proposal. The outputs of the Project Planning phase include the Project Requirements, the Project Schedule, and the Project Management Plan. \In this chapter, the project phases and scheduling are listed in more detail. The common goals for each phase are:

* All deliverables are ready as scheduled and they fulfill the quality requirements. * Tasks belonging to a particular phase are completed in time. For each phase the main tasks are introduced, deliverables are defined, reports and other documents are declared and their levels of detail are defined. For each phase the main tasks are introduced, deliverables are defined, reports and other documents are declared and their levels of detail are defined.


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