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Trade Essay Topics & Paper Examples

Will Tire Tariffs Launch a Trade Dispute

On September 11, 2009, the Obama administration announced its decision to impose punitive tariffs on low-end tire imports from China under a statute known as Section 421 of the Trade Act of 1974. In addition to an existing 4 percent import duty, tariffs were increased by rates of 35 percent for the first year, 30 percent the second year, and 25 percent the third year because imports of Chinese tires were deemed to be excessive. China’s government responded quickly to the announcement, saying in a statement that it “strongly opposes” what it called “a serious act of trade protectionism. ” China agreed to be subject to Section 421 as a special concession when it joined the World Trade Organization (WTO)…

The American Federation of Teachers (AFT)

Unions are a dynamic component of the American workforce. Many organizations and businesses contain and cooperate with unions to appease their employees and ensure fair work conditions and compensations, although, sometimes this appeasement can infringe on federal or state laws. There are ways to avoid litigation on the unions such as better visibility of their fiscal activity on a political level. There are benefits to joining a union through the bargaining process, hopefully in a win-win or distributive process for both the employee and employer (Cascio, 2010). Government workers now account for almost half of all union members (Bovard, 1998). In the public school system, teachers are employees of the local governing body whether it is the town or county…

International Trade

Abstract One of the most confusing intolerance times is that free trade discussions are unlimited while free trade itself is growing and growing. For more than a while the government attempted to a global agreement to “lower trade barriers that have gone nowhere.” (Naim, 2007) The very last time trade was discussed they had reason to celebrate was in the late 1900’s this was when “125 nations agreed to a significant drop in trade barriers and the creation of new institution charged with supervising and liberalizing international trade, the World Trade Organization.” (Naim, 2007) “Keep in mind that, despite all the misgivings about international trade, the fact remains that countries share of economic activity related to exports is growing very…

Reliance Life Insurance Project

Many people take to trading in the mistaken belief that it is the simplest way of making money. Far from it, I believe it is the easiest way of losing money. There is an old Wall Street adage, that “the easiest way of making a small fortune in the markets is having a large fortune”. This game is by no means for the faint hearted. And, this battle is not won or lost during trading hours but before the markets open but through a disciplined approach to trading. 1. A successful trader has a trading plan and does his homework diligently Winning traders diligently maintain charts and keep aside some hours for market analysis. Every evening a winning trader updates…

Special Problems in International Business

What make international business strategy different from the domestic is the differences in the business environment. The important special problems in international business are as follows: 1.Political and legal differences: The political and legal environment of foreign markers is different from that of the domestic market. The complexity generally increases as the number of countries in which a company does business increases. It should also be noted that the political and legal environment is not the same in all provinces of many home markers. For instance, the legal environment is not exactly the same in all the states of India. 2.Cultural differences: Cultural differences are one of the most difficult problems in international marketing, as explained in the next chapter….

Speech Ladies and Gentlemen

Thank you all for coming here today. As I come here today, I will explain to you the current state of the United States macro economy. In this press conference, we will be discussing some of the questions and concerns. Afterwards, if there are any more questions, we will answer them then. Macroeconomics can be simply explained as stating it is the way that the economy is examined. It helps us understand how a part of the economy grows and why sometimes it does not. It can also give us reason of fluctuations, and what indicators cause the performance in our economy. What are the effects of having a surplus of imports in the U.S. One thing I would like…

The Hyundai Group

The strikes of 1987 found their main base amongst workers in heavy industry, especially in Ulsan, the centre of Hyundai’s operations in South Korea. I II. Background of the study The Pressure built up during the harsh years of military dictatorship, economic boom, and management style had caused several labor strikes. For thirty years, South Korea had been ruled by a military dictator and growing calls for democracy had echoed through the 1970s and early 80s. South Korea’s economic boom put Hyundai in a position wherein their strategy of low wages and hard work were no longer suffice in the face of rising competition from other developing nations and swelling demands from the country’s more independent youth generation. At Hyundai,…

Employee Grievances

In industrial context the word grievance is used in industrial context to designate claims by workers of a Trade Union concerning their individual or collective rights under an applicable collective agreement, individual contract of employment, law, regulations, work rules, custom or usage. Such claims involve questions relating to the interpretation or application of the rules. The term “Grievance” is used in countries to designate this type of claim, while in some other countries reference is made to disputes over “right” or “legal” disputes. The grounds for a grievance may be any measure or situation which concerns the relations between the employers and worker or which affects the conditions of employment of one or several workers in the undertaking when that…

The History of Anti-Dumping

The history of anti-dumping actions dates back many decades ago when Canada for the first time took such an action. In due course the practice was followed by many other countries namely Australia, the Grat Britain and the USA. When the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was drafted, it included provisions for imposing company specific anti-dumping duties against price discrimination in import trade. Substantial tariff reduction commitments have been undertaken in the Uruguay Round. By the end of the implementation period, tariffs on industrial products in the developed countries would come down from a trade-weighted average of 6.3% to 3.9%. Similarly,through Article X1 of the GATT 1994 it has been ensured that no prohibitions or restrictions, other than…

orld Trade Organization

On November 30, 1999, major governments met at a World Trade Organization (WTO), ministerial meeting at the Washington State Convention and Trade Center in Seattle, Washington. During this meeting an enormous public protest took place in the streets of Seattle. The protestors were representing human rights groups, students, environmental groups, religious leaders, labor rights activists and members of numerous other groups. The groups were not only from the United States, but had come from all over the world. All of these people were peacefully protesting the practices of the WTO in the name of free trade. The protestors stated that the WTO upheld trade practices that allowed child labor, low wages and environmental destruction. The WTO justified these practices in…

Wto Principles

As it is known the WTO agreements is very huge in and documents full of complexity which cover range of activities such as banking, government procurement, agriculture, and etc. Therefore there are five clear principles that go into all documents, and they are considered as the basis of multilateral trading system (WTO, n.d.). These principles are briefly introduced bellow: Non-discrimination trading The first principle to introduce is trading without discrimination, having two important components which are most-favoured-nation (MFN) and national treatment. Both are inserted as main rules in WTO on goods, intellectual property and services (Hoekman & Kostecki, 2009). However, the MFN rule can be briefly explained as a rule that makes a product made in a particular member country…

Import Export Process

Import is the process of bringing goods from one country into another country in a manner satisfying the legal requirements of the receiving country. An organization that is licensed to receive these goods in the country is referred to as an Importer. For importing goods into Dubai, an Importer should have a valid Trade License issued from any of the License Issuing Authority in U.A.E. and should be registered with Dubai Customs. The Importer has the option to carry out import procedures online on Dubai Trade or manually through Ports & Customs Documentation Centers. The procedure mentioned below describes the paperless import process through Dubai Trade. To access Dubai Trade portal electronic services the customer must register himself with Dubai…

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. The GATT has been established to regularize the international trade. The tariff negotiations were made among the 23 countries who are the founders of the GATT. It was happened during 1946. These countries called contracting parties. The first round of negotiations resulted 45,000 tariff concessions affecting $10 billion which about one fifth of world trade. The tariff concession and rules together became known as General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, which comes into force with effect from January 1948 known as GATT. Link between GATT and WTO 1. The GATT is set of rules, which is multilateral agreement, and with no institutional foundation. The WTO is a permanent institution with its own secretariat. The…

Progressive Discipline – Employee/Labor Relations

Discipline within the workplace is and has been a controversial subject. With so much at stake, employers and employees have different opinions on types of discipline and the effectiveness of these processes. One largely debated form of workplace discipline is progressive discipline. Should employees be encouraged to rehabilitate in the workplace? Should management be protected against legal action if they are to terminate an employee for unacceptable performance or behavior? There are many different situation and answers to these questions. Progressive discipline has become standard in unionized environments, and is becoming more common in other settings, such as government, hospitals, and high-school classrooms. ((Pinker, S, 2010) Progressive discipline is practice of establishing a series of steps of escalating seriousness and…

The Changing Roles of Trade Unions in India

ABSTRACT Trade unions are a major component of the system of modern industrial relations in any nation, each having, in their constitution, their own set of objectives or goals to achieve. Change in the political, social and educational environment has seen them rechristened as a forum that protects and furthers workers’ interests and improves the quality of life of workers, enlarging their traditional roles of establishing terms and conditions of employment. This paper focuses on plant level trade unions, particularly those of the National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) Unchahar plant, one of the largest and best Public Sector Undertakings of India. This exploratory study of the different trade unions operational at the Unchahar plant will also highlight their ideologies, objectives…

China: The Advantages And Disadvantages of International Trade

International trade has always been an attractive idea for merchants and businessman since time immemorial. There is always an opportunity to sell more, make more profits, increase the market share, remove seasonality fluctuations of demand and supply, increase in productivity, and of course a business or even a country learns a lot on the product development technologies and strategies from doing business with other countries or regions. Trade also leads to higher GDP, better and more choices of products for consumers, increase in competition in domestic market leads to competitive prices which is good for consumers, competition also leads to better quality in goods and services, and reduces unemployment and poverty. Thus, this leads to growth and maturing of a…

India’s Trade in 2020

Introduction India’s trade has generally grown at a faster rate compared to the growth of GDP over the past two decades. With the liberalization since 1991 in particular, the importance of international trade in India’s economy has grown considerably. As a result the ratio of international trade to GDP has gone up from 14 per cent in 1980 to nearly 20 per cent towards the end of the decade of 1990s. Given the trends of globalization and liberalization, the openness of Indian economy is expected to grow further in the coming two decades. The more exact magnitude of India’s trade in 2020 and its proportion to India’s national income would be determined by a variety of factors. Many of these…

International Trade Theories

1. Theory of Mercantilism Introduction: Mercantilism is a trade theory holing that a country’s wealth is measured by its holdings of “treasure” which usually means its gold. The mercantilists proposed theory of mercantilism. They were a group of economists who preceded Adam Smith. The foundations of economic thought between 1500 and 1800 were based on mercantilism. Mercantilists believed that the world had a finite store of wealth; therefore, when one country got more, other countries had less. Mercantilists restricted imports and encouraged or subsidized exports as a conscious policy to make their citizens better off. Mercantilists judged the success of trade by the size of the trade balance. Mercantilism was a sixteenth-century economic philosophy that maintained that a country’s wealth…

Merger and Acquisition

Indian Trade Unions In India the Trade Union movement is generally divided on political lines. According to provisional statistics from the Ministry of Labour, trade unions had a combined membership of 24,601,589 in 2002. As of 2008, there are 11 Central Trade Union Organizations (CTUO) recognized by the Ministry of Labour These are different recognized Central Trade organizations All India Central Council of Trade Unions All India Central Council of Trade Unions, a central trade union federation in India. AICCTU is politically attached to Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) Liberation. According to provisional statistics from the Ministry of Labour, AICCTU had a membership of 639,962 in 2002. The affiliated unions of All India Central Council of Trade Unions are *…

United States Labor Movement

The Labor Movement in the United States of America started in the formative years of our nation. Its purpose being to organize workers to strive for better working conditions, reasonable pay and better treatment in the workplace. From it’s beginnings in the early to mid nineteenth century during the Industrial Revolution to the modern era of today, the labor movement has fought hard forming labor parties and labor laws to give the American worker the rights they deserve. One of the earliest and more influential of labor organizations came to be in 1860; The Knights of Labor. The Knights of Labor mission was to “inform, and support working families, and to organize them to better represent their rights” (The Knights…

Rhetorical Analysis of the World Tradeorganization

WTO: Why It Was Opposed – A Rhetorical Analysis of Top Twelve Reasons to Oppose the World Trade Organization Nowadays economic globalization is a trend. Free trade affects us every day. The World Trade Organization is writing the constitution and operating the global trade. However, more and more people start to think over: is free trade a universally good global economic system? Does the WTO can really inspire growth and prosperity for all? According to the Global Exchange, the answer is no and there are alternatives to the WTO. A flier distributed through the website for Global Exchange appeal to people to oppose the WTO and replace it with a democratic global economy. The flier strongly proves that the WTO…

Trade Barriers and Regulations: The Case of China

The Case of China From 2006 to 2007, US trade deficit with China grew from $232. 6 billion to about $256. 3 billion. In 2007, US exports to China amounted to about $65 billion while US imports from China valued at $321. 5 billion. In order to lessen this trade deficit, the US government urged the Chinese government to “float” the Chinese currency. The Chinese currency is expected to appreciate following the implementation of the “floating principle. ” This will in effect reduce the overall value of Chinese exports to the United States by about a third. The indifference of the Chinese government to this issue forced the United States to bring WTO cases against China in 2007. The United…

Introduction to Labor Studies

1. Government and Labor Unions Workers and labor unions can achieve change either in the economic arena (unionizing and collective bargaining) or in the governmental arena. Over the past 75 years, some of the greatest achievements have been won in the governmental arena, and unions become integral part of Democratic coalition from Roosevelt on. Franklin Roosevelt and the New Deal (1933-1939) * New Deal – massive government jobs stimulus programs to boost economy during Great Depression. Based on Keynesian economic theory that government spending to create jobs during economic downturn will boost consumer spending * Social Safety Net: Social Security, Welfare, Unemployment Insurance programs created * Pro-union legislation: Wagner Act makes it easier for unions to organize by providing card-check…

Export Trade of Bangladesh with Saarc Countries

Introduction The policy of trade liberalization and free-market economy in the 1980s has created both challenges and opportunities for Bangladesh economy. The creation of the World Trade Organization has created new ways of enjoying the comparative advantage for Bangladesh. At the same time, the globalize trade scenario has opened up the structural limitations of Bangladesh economy, which needs immediate attention through the formulation of appropriate policy and actions. Bangladesh continues to suffer from a low-growth, high-poverty syndrome. However, Bangladesh has a large labor force willing to work for low wages resulting in a very competitive position for labor-intensive manufacturing exports. It has a large number of entrepreneurial businessmen who are able to develop and run small and medium scale enterprises….

Trade Off Pecking Order

The trade-off theory is derived from the debate over the Modigliani-Miller theorem. Modigliani-Miller (1963) accounts for corporate income tax into their original theorem. This created a benefit for using debt as it shields taxable income. They argue that corporate tax allows for the deduction of interest payments in calculating taxable income. As a result, the use of debt will increase the firm’s after-tax cash flow. This means that profitable firms should use debt to shield their income from tax. This would imply that a firm would use 100% debt financing. However, Modigliani-Miller (1958) failed to take into account the agency costs and bankruptcy costs associated with debt. Using debt carries additional risk, which means that it is not optimal to…

International Trade & Finance Speech

International trade is essentially when two or more countries exchange goods and services. Many countries export their goods and services to other countries and in turn, they can also import goods and services from other countries to into their own. Advancements with technology have made it a lot easier for international trade to take place. Communication between countries is a good example. Communicating has vastly improved and helped to simplify the trading process. Some technologically advanced countries, like Japan and China have bountiful natural resources and that has a heavy impact on us. The United States is one of the largest contributors to international trade. Our GDP (Gross Domestic Product), is greatly impacted due to being huge import consumers. The…

Patco Strike

On August 3, 1981, nearly 13,000 of the 17,500 members of the Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization (PATCO) staged a walk out and strike. There were four main reasons the union members of PATCO decided to go on strike. First, to address the concerns by members who felt that their work was seriously undervalued and under-rewarded. The second reason was that the Federal Aviation Administration had neglected serious deficiencies in staffing and hardware reliability. Thirdly, their work week was unreasonably long, especially when compared to controllers overseas. The fourth reason for the strike was the FAA’s (FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION) approach to management-union relations and the safety of the system. The 1981 strike can be traced back to as early as…

The Path To Industrial Growth Within China & India

Newly Industrialized Countries (NIC’s) have become increasingly industrially robust. As a result, it can be argued that NIC’s have used a set of economic requisites to achieve success in the 20th century. Selected countries in this grouping have realized newfound industrialization as the result of their political governing approach and have applied the same political development policies towards international involvement but it is not a necessity for industrialization. Using NIC’s China and India as leading examples, this essay will deliberate that there are specific economic requisites required by NIC’s for prosperity, but that liberal democracy, or any other governing form, is not a political requisite for NIC’s. China and India are the top NIC’s in term of GDP and GDP…

Nicaraguan Cocoa Trade

Cocoa has been an important part of Mesoamerican life for more than a thousand years. It began as a sacred, ceremonial food until the discovery of the Americas by the Europeans. From that time to today cocoa has been a booming commodity locally and more importantly, in the worldwide marketplace. (Somarriba, 2009) However, Nicaragua struggles to capture a big portion of the international market, although cocoa from that region is generally accepted as very high quality. In the late 1970’s farmers struggled with both crop disease and lower market prices. The outcome was a massive replacement by farmers from cocoa to bananas, which were believed to be more profitable. The effect was a decrease in cocoa bean production, which has…

Black & Decker Case Study

In this case, Black & Decker Corporation (B&D) is facing a major challenge in the power tools market. The industry is segmented into three categories; Consumer, Professional-Industrial, and Professional-Tradesmen, and while B&D holds the biggest market share in the Consumer segment, they are trailing far behind in the Professional-Tradesmen segment, with a meager 9% market share. Though this is a growing market segment, B&D is barely making any profits from it, and a new strategy is needed if they are to be competitive and gain market share. Market research revealed that Black & Decker had excellent market awareness; almost 98% of consumers were familiar with the brand. In the Consumer segment, B&D held almost 50% of the market, and in…