The changing nature of the work environment, the emergence of technology driven processes and the diversified needs of the industry are challenges that will test the ability of colleges and universities to meet the demand for employable graduates. The determination of graduates in the job-search mode, lead time, and employment conditions are realities where the knowledge acquired in schools are used at work, in promotions, and job satisfaction. Education is a process and a product. As a process, education is a system whereby an individual acquires knowledge, skills and attitudes that are essential in attaining an objective or set of objectives in life through a conscious effort of developing one’s capabilities through formal schooling, non-formal or informal education and training. It is a dynamic process of growth and development.
On the other hand, the concept of education as a product is based on what a person is capable of doing after schooling, training or learning process. It is the sum total of all the experiences an individual acquires or applies in the society where he lives or works. Curriculum, especially in formal schooling is a planned interaction of students with instructional content, materials, resources, and processes for evaluating the attainment of educational objectives which addresses the complexities of learning.
Therefore enhancing it or improving it according to the needs of the industry, it is expected to make a person more employable and productive as they enter the world of work. There has been a remarkable increase in the activities of modern curriculum coupled by its growing complexity that has been probably made the school vital and integral part of changes and development in the society. The school has a great responsibility in developing among the students the right habits, attitudes and skills that can help them become useful citizens, thus, contributing much to the development of the society.
This study will help us define employability, highlighting the impact of their curriculum to crop graduates as they proceed as workers in the industry. This paper made use of detailed information gathered from the graduates of PUP (Polytechnic University of the Philippines) BSHRM (Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Restaurant Management) by means of questionnaires who were qualified under the curriculum between S.Y. 2005-2009. This study focuses on personal qualities, core skills, and process skills considered necessary for foundational success and the extent to which they were perceived to have been developed by the curriculum enhancement and degree programs. This will served as a basis for the capability of PUP BSHRM graduates if they have become effective and officially working in their area of assignment that is related to their tackled course. This study should give its readers, students, graduates and others an edge in terms of competencies and be able to respond in the demand of the hotel industry in order to be called “qualified and well-trained graduates.”
John Dewey’s Curriculum Theory
John Dewey felt that the curriculum should be ultimately producing students who would be able to deal effectively with the modern world. Therefore, curriculum should not be presented as finished intellections, but should include the student’s preconceptions and should incorporate how the student views his or her own world. Curriculum should build an orderly sense of the world where the students’ lives. Dewey is credited for the development of the progressive schools some of which are still in existence today. Dewey’s Curriculum theory stated that “Curriculum should build an orderly sense of the world where the students’ lives.” it is related to our field of study because enhancement of the curriculum should always be based or should always include the growing needs of the industry, so that when students graduated college, they will have more knowledge about the field of work they’re about to enter and will gain more experience and confidence through the curriculum.
Theory of boundary less career and employability
The “boundary” in “boundary less career” can be interpreted as career boundary, organization boundary, employment relationship boundary, work role boundary, etc. Boundary less career is not also used to describe a development trend of modern career, but also to represent a mode of individual career development. As a development trend of career, boundary less career breaks through the hypothesis that organization can provide employment for life, and highlights the instability and turbulence of modern career. This theory explains the limit of an individual employability, from the significance of curriculum enhancement of the degree taken by students, as the theory stated that it represent a mode of individual career development, curriculum enhancement is a process which enhances both the students and the curriculum in which it can help the students to gain better employment opportunities as they graduated. With this improvement crop graduates can freely choose what job he/she wanted as he goes into the industry.
Employability of PUP BSHRM 2009 graduates will be included in this study; it will assess the significance of the curriculum enhancement from their first year up to the last years of their time in college. It is illustrated above that employment is one of the second major needs of people to live. Curriculum enhancement helps students to gain better employment opportunities as they finish their studies. This theory just sustained our study of being a basis for curriculum enhancement because of the growing needs of the industry of employable workers/employees and the strive of the academe to produce one.
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK/ PARADIGM
As illustrated above, the study was guided by the system approach: INPUT- PROCESS- OUTPUT.
The researchers used the Combs System approach consisting of three elements namely input, process, and output. The first frame which is the Input contains the study focusing on the present status of the graduates of PUP BSHRM school year 2008-2009, from their curriculum taken from school year 2005 up to their year of graduation. Under it are the graduates’ demographic profile, employment profile, problems encountered in finding a job, their job competencies and skills experienced and their comments and suggestions on improving the curriculum and the used of questionnaires.
The second frame refers to the analyzing, collecting and gathering of data through further research and questionnaires. The last box is the finished output which anticipated the result of the study which is the Improved PUP BSHRM curriculum into the succeeding years.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This study is conducted substantially to find out the present status of PUP BSHRM graduates of school year 2008-2009 rendering to the curriculum they have taken from school year 2005-2009. It attempts to know if they turned out to have jobs related to their course.
Specifically, this study aims to determine the following:
1. What is the employment profile of the respondents in terms of:
1.1 Nature of Employment
1.2 Position or job title
1.3 Current Position
1.4 Current Employment Status
1.5 Name of Employer/Company
1.6 Type of Agency
1.7 Nature of company/business
1.8 Length of service in current employment/job
1.9 How much is your current gross monthly pay/salary (in Philippine peso)
2. What are the difficulties or problems encountered by the respondents in getting a job in terms of:
2.1. Reason for being unemployed
2.2. Reasons for leaving a job
2.3. How did you look for a job after graduation
2.4. How long did it take before you were hired or landed a job.
3. What are the job competencies and skills, and educational experience the respondents learned in PUP:
3.1. The extent to which your degree/training in
PUP has helped you 3.2. Relevance in Job
3.3. The quality of educational experience in PUP
4. Based on the answer from the respondents. What are the suggestion and comments that may help to enhance the curriculum.
It is hypothesized that there is no significant difference between the curriculum use of batch 2009 and their employability.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is essential to understand the Employability of PUP BS HRM Scholars as a basis for the curriculum enhancement. The findings of this study can be beneficial to the following:
With the help of this study they can identify each graduates’ employability based on the curriculum they have taken from that they can identify which curriculum benefits the students most and which is not.
This knowledge will help students to understand the importance of their curriculum as to their employability as they graduated, it is also for them to know if their curriculum is at the highest improvability or does it need more improvement.
Curriculum enhancement is a job for the faculties to initiate to the students; they are the one capable of teaching the curriculum with this study they will acquire knowledge as a basis of the right curriculum for the students to take.
For the Department
It is for them to profoundly comprehend upon knowing that the curriculum has a big impact on the graduates’ employability, they will think of more ways to improve the curriculum to the succeeding years of the department.
For the Administrators
This research will be their guide and serve as their basis in revising and enhancing the curriculum.
For the University
This study will help the university to be a basis to tackle curriculum management and enhancement to another level to produce employable graduates.
For the Industry
Comprehendible enough, this research will give a step for the industry to know the impact of an individual’s curriculum taken of their possible employees in the future that will help them know the scopes of hiring, and to cooperatively response with the academe with their improving curriculum.
This study will help future researchers to have an idea of how a curriculum affects the employability of a graduate, they can easily distinguish the changes of the curriculum or and the improvement of it by this study and also the state of employability of future graduates.
SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This research entitled “Tracer Study of BSHRM Batch 2009: As Basis for Curriculum Enhancement” is being conducted on the 2nd semester of school year 2013 to October 2014 . The number of respondents is limited only to the availability of the graduates as well as the ones who answered the questionnaire within the period of the study. This is because some of the contact information of respondents such as telephone and cellular phone numbers, Social media contacts, e-mail addresses as well as the residence address is not accessible and is not available during the study.
This study aims to discuss the employability of the graduates by means of their educational attainment, employment profile, problems encountered on finding a job, knowledge and skills learned and their competencies experienced as a basis for the curriculum enhancement.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
The following terms are defined operationally and lexically to provide a common frame of reference .
1. BSHRM (Bachelor in Science in Hotel and Restaurant Management) – it is the degree taken by the respondents in this study. 2. Curriculum – is a planned interaction of students with instructional content, materials, resources, and processes for evaluating the attainment of educational objectives. 3. Employability – this is how we will rate the curriculum by means of its significance in the industry. 4. Employment Profile – this is the profile used to determine the employability of the graduates 5. Enhancement – this defines the continuous change that the curriculum was undertaking.
6. HRM (Hotel Restaurant Management) – the industry or field of emphasis of the study. 7. Industry – this is the area of specialization of the graduates such as lodging industry, Food industry and Foodservice industry etc. 8. PUP (Polytechnic University of the Philippines) – one of the partners of the PFPD program and this is the university which is focusing in the study. 9. School year 2005-2009 – it is the inclusive year of the curriculum tackled by the graduates of batch 2009. 10. Tracer Study – Tracer study is the follow up of graduates of higher education or institutes. Its aim is to evaluate ones progress up to the time he or she gets a job. This study assesses the availability and quality of graduates.