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Toxic Waste Essay

Did public reaction to sites like Woburn, Massachusetts create what we refer to now as brownfields and is the Ohio Voluntary Action Program an effective way in dealing with contaminated properties? There are reasons that could tell us that public reactions to sites like Woburn, Massachusetts have created what we refer to now as brownfields. The Ohio Voluntary Action Program made it possible so that companies who owned land that could be classified as brownfields could come forth, and say that they want to redevelop them without being punished by the EPA and have to pay major fines.

The Ohio Voluntary Action Program uses certified and trained professionals in conjunction with the Ohio EPA to make it an effective way in dealing with the redevelopment of contaminated properties. Public reaction did create to what we refer to now as brownfields and the Ohio Voluntary Action Program can be an effective way in dealing with contaminated properties. There is evidence that proves that public reaction to sites like Love Canal, New York and Woburn, Massachusetts have created to what we refer to now as brownfields.

There are things like the Woburn Toxic Trial that brought more attention to what we know now as brownfields. Both of these sites led to the possibility of citizens living around this area to get sick or even die. This led to the evacuation of Love Canal on August 2, 1978. Also less than a week later on “August 7, 1978, President Jimmy Carter declared a State of Emergency in Love Canal and 239 families living within two rows of the landfill were permanently relocated. (Angelo)

The president also called for a second state of emergency on October 1, 1980 that would remove the remaining families from Love Canal that wanted to be relocated and provided funds for the relocation. “Partially because of the incident at Love Canal, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) was enacted on December 11, 1980 as a federal law. ”(Angelo) Public reaction to these kinds of sites did help create what we refer to now as Brownfields.

The Ohio Voluntary Action Program made it possible so that companies who owned land that could be classified as brownfields could come forth, and say that they want to redevelop them without being punished by the EPA and have to pay major fines. Prior to the creation of the Ohio Voluntary Action Program valuable land would sit idle for years due to the fears of major liability and cleanup costs scared off potential redevelopers such as banks and businesses. The program was created to provide companies a way to investigate possible environmental contamination, clean it up if necessary and receive a promise from the State of Ohio (covenant not to sue or CNS) that no more cleanup is needed. ”(Ohio’s)

These redevelopers would be trying to receive a NFA or a No Further Action letter. They would also receive some tax incentives from the government for using the Voluntary Action Program as a way to help pay for the cleanup expenses. Some redevelopers would abandon their cleanup plans because the Ohio EPA did not have enough resources to provide oversight for their projects. By creating this program, Ohio recognized the need to remove the environmental and legal barriers that stalled redevelopment and reuse of contaminated properties. ”(Ohio’s)

The Ohio Voluntary Action Program can be an effective way in dealing with contaminated properties because of these reasons that help speed up and produce more redevelopments of contaminated properties throughout Ohio. The Ohio Voluntary Action Program uses certified trained professionals in conjunction with the Ohio EPA to make it an effective way in dealing with the redevelopment of contaminated properties.

These certified professionals are responsible for overseeing and making sure that the properties are getting cleaned properly and that they are getting cleaned up to levels that they need to be required by the Ohio EPA. This Program “maximizes resources and expertise in the private sector by utilizing qualified, experienced professionals such as engineers and scientists, who are certified by the Ohio EPA. ”(Ohio’s) One of these certified professionals could falsify their reports like Dennis Smalley, this was introduced to us by Sue Kroeger.

Dennis Smalley was a certified professional who falsified his documents to the Ohio EPA so that he could receive no further action letters for the properties that he was hired to work on. The Ohio EPA audits sites that have been taken through the Ohio Voluntary Action Program so that they can catch people like Dennis Smalley. “As a result, Ohio EPA audits at least 25 percent of the properties taken through the VAP to ensure that sites have been properly addressed and that certified professionals and laboratories performed work properly. (Ohio’s)

The Ohio Voluntary Action Program can be an effective way in dealing with contaminated properties because of these reasons that help speed up and produce more redevelopments of contaminated properties throughout Ohio. Did public reaction to sites like Woburn, Massachusetts create what we refer to now as brownfields and is the Ohio Voluntary Action Program an effective way in dealing with contaminated properties? Public reaction to sites like Love Canal, New York and Woburn, Massachusetts did create what we refer to now as brownfields.

These reactions brought major attention to sites like these which helped establish laws and acts so that the responsible parties could be fined for their toxic land. The Ohio Voluntary Action Program made it possible for these businesses to want to clean up their sites without being punished or having major fines for owning a brownfield. This program led to lots of businesses and property coming forth with their brownfields to have them cleaned up because if they didn’t and the Ohio EPA came first they would receive major fines and then still have to pay for the cleanup expenses.

This program also uses certified and trained professionals in conjunction with the Ohio EPA to help speed these cleanup processes up. These Professionals made it possible for more brownfield redevelopments to go on at a time. Public reaction did create to what we refer to now as brownfields and the Ohio Voluntary Action Program can be an effective way in dealing with contaminated properties.


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