1.1 Introduction to essay
Tourism has increasingly grown as the economy develops well and the level of living style of human being improves, especially in China. (Jordon & Ken, 2001)The dramatically growth of tourism has brought several benefits such as enhancing local economic development and the reduction of unemployment rate. (Philip D. & Brian R., 1995) However, it is still questionable that whether it is absolutely profitable if the number of tourists continue to rise. The objectives of this essay are to emphasize the negative impacts of tourism to a Chinese destination. This essay is going to cover how the boosting tourism is affecting the quality of water and air in China.
1.2 Introduction to articlelu
This article is discussing about the sudden influx of tourists throughout China during China’s National Day golden week and the negative environmental impacts that it caused.
2.0 Main arguments discussion
2.1 The general fact of tourism
Over time, there is a significant growth in tourism all over the world. With reference to appendix A, it is significantly shown that the number of international tourist arrivals doubled from 435 millions to 940 millions from 1990 to 2010. Distinctively in the South Asia region, the numbers rose from 3.2 millions to 11.1 millions in the span of ten years, this relatively attracts a higher number of tourists among the strongest growing areas in 2010. As reported in UNWTO Tourism Highlight (2011), the position of china in tourism indicators moves up in both arrivals and receipts, reaching to the third position and the forth place out of the top ten, respectively.
2.2 The factors involving an increase in tourism
It is evident that nowadays, more and more people prefer to choose China as their holiday destination, showing an obvious demand for tourism. It is notable that there was a 20.8% growth of foreign tourists’ (about 85.4 million tourists) arrivals after the Beijing Olympics and Shanghai Expo. (China Daily, 2009) However, there are several crucial reasons that push people to go out to an unfamiliar place and pull them to China, listed below are the push and pull factors respectively.
2.2.1 Push factors
There are several factors involved in influencing the increment of tourism, such as economic expansion, social changes, demographic aspects and technological developments. (Weaver, D. B., & Oppermann, M. 2000) Being rich and affluent allows most people to be able to achieve a better sense of purchase power. The availability of greater discretionary household income gains various choices rather than just spending on basic living requirement;( Agarwal and Yochum,1999) Moreover, nowadays people tend to travel overseas during their vacation, in order to escape their busy work schedules. Households have also become smaller, so family members can spend less in bringing up children, thus having more money for leisure activities. In addition, the advancement in technology makes it easier for travelers to reach their destination. To sum up, all these factors boost the demand of tourism. (Weaver, D. B., & Oppermann, M. 2000)
2.2.2 Pull factors
Referring to Appendix B, Asian tourists make up the majority of China’s tourism market due to their geographical advantage. For example, Japan is the biggest tourist-source market for China as both countries are situated near from each other. It is also cheaper for the Japanese to travel to China as it is relatively cheaper than to other countries. Besides, the 5000-year history of China is always attracting tourists all over the world. In addition, the complement of airline systems and expansion of high speed train are more comfortable, continence and efficient. The quality of service has also grown together with the influx of tourists. (Jeffrey, 2008)
3.0 The negative impacts of tourism to environment
However, it is questionable whether it is absolutely good if the number of tourist constantly grow yearly. According to this article, it was a common phenomenon that china was overly congested with people during the Chinese National Day. 20,000 tourists could not find a hotel to settle down in Pu Tuo mountain (a famous mountain in china); During the same period of time, San Ya beach was described to be a dump because 50 tons rubbish was abandoned along the coast, while vehicles were held up on the expressway, which looked like they were parking in car parks. (Lei, 2012) These events are apparently showing a sign that when the sheer number of tourists is overload for a destination, it will lead to a decline in both socio-cultural and natural environment. However, only natural environment will be discussed about thought focusing on two main pollutions that exit during the rapid development of tourism. They are water pollution and air pollution, respectively.
3.1 Water pollution
With the boosting tourism, more water resources are developed to attract travelers. Those people who enjoy the natural attractions of beauty and peacefulness like to boat along the waterways and enjoy the scenery.(Jeffrey, 2008) Thus, an increase of water transports like motorboats, will in turn cause oil emissions which would pollute the water ways.( Jeffrey, 2008 ) Moreover, the rubbish dump by travelers is harmful to the quality of water. Furthermore, hotels & resorts built along waterways or coastlines will produce a big amount of sewage as well. These series of events would be obviously harmful to local water system during the holiday and would certainly cost a loss in the economy. For example, a number of 360 million yuan(US $43 million) was invested to clean up the Lijiang River by government. (People’s Daily, 2000)
3.2 Air pollution
Nowadays, with advanced technology, majority of people prefer to take air transport to their preferred destinations. Refer to Appendix C, half of the total (51%) tourists chose to travel by air in 2010, while the road transport rank at the second popular choice of all mode of transports. All vehicle transport create exhaust fumes. (Simpson et al., 2008) Air pollution caused by tourist transportation has spread to the whole human being living environment, especially from carbon dioxide production because of the usage of transportation energy. (Majbritt, 2010) In fact, the air in China, especially in the city area, is suffering from heavy pollution. (Gregory C. Chow, 2008) Amongst 20 worst-air-cities around the world, 16 of them belongs to China. (Jeffrey, 2008)
In conclusion, the negative impacts of tourism to Chinese environment such as water pollution and air pollution have been explained above. These are the consequences that booming tourism has to pay. Thus, it is worth noting that the substantial tourism is calling peremptorily. Increasing tourism does bring a lot of profit for economy, but it is a double-edged sword. If left uncontrolled, tourism can cause both social and environmental problems as seen from China’s case. However, although I believe that the Tourism industry in china reaps more positivity on the whole, although there is no concrete panacea to this issue.
This research essay required gathering relevant facts and information from a vast variety of sources, including book literatures, journals, news articles, specified review and online sources, in order to deliver complete understanding of the main topic – Negative impact of tourism to China’s destination. This research paper focused on gathering crucial data from the most valid and credible sources as reliability and credibility were key concerns. The usage of online journals and articles which were accessible on University Of Newcastle Blackboard were definitely useful in gathering information such as essential Annals of Tourism Research and Studies.
In addition to this, Google Scholar played an imperative role in providing relevant information on the topics of Tourism in China as well as statistics on relevant areas. Key words like inbound tourism of china, water pollution were used on Google search engine to obtain further detail figures such as the number of tourism to China in 2010. Other than the methods listed above, the Chinese government reports and UNWTO annual reports were also used to describe and further elaborate changing tourism trend and statistics. The main keyword descriptors used to complete the research include: negative impacts of tourism in China, water pollution and air pollution information
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