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Titration Essay Topics & Paper Examples

Titration of Acids and Bases

Introduction According to Arrhenius definition, acid is substance that produces H3O+ ion while base is substance that produces OH- ions. The reaction between acid and base often yields the products of salt and water. The formation of water in this neutralization reaction is caused by the combination of H3O+ and OH- ions. In order to determine the concentration of an unknown acid and base, a method called acid-base titration is used. The end of the titration has been reached when the moles of acid equals the moles of base. This is called the equivalent point. However, end point os the actual point that is reached in neutralization reaction. End point is signalled by the change in color of the solution…

Determination of nickel

INTRODUCTION EDTA (H₄Y) is widely used to determine metals in complexometric (a volumetric analysis where the formation of a coloured complex is used to indicate the end point of a titration) titrations as it forms stable complexes with most metal ions. EDTA is a tetracorboxylic acid and in alkaline conditions, it exists as Y⁴⁻ ions, which form 1:1 complexes with metal ions like nickel(II) ions: Y⁴⁻ + Ni²⁺ NiY²⁻ A metal ion indicator (an organic dye which changes colour when it binds with metal ions) shows the end of an EDTA complexometric titration. However, for a metal ion indicator to be suitable in n EDTA titration, it must not bind as strongly with metal ions as EDTA does. Murexide is…

Neutralization Titrations: The Determination of Soda Ash

I.Purpose: The goal of this experiment is to determine the weight % of Na2CO3 through the preparation of NaOH and HCl standards. The molarity of the standards will be found through titration of KHP for NaOH, HCl vs the known NaOH, and the unknown Soda Ash sample vs the known HCl. II.Equations and Sample Calculations: Titration of HCl with NaOH: Complete Equation: HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq)  H2O (l) + NaCl (aq) Net Ionic Equation: H+ + OH-  H2O(l) Calculations (10mL 0.1M HCL, 100mL H20, 7.8mL NaOH): # mols NaOH = 0.1M (known concentration) x 0.0078L (titrated volume) = 0.00078mol 1:1 ratio mol NaOH to HCL = 0.00078 mol HCl M HCl= = 0.078 M HCl Standardization of…

Lab Report on Acid-Base Titration

1. Aim: To determine the weight-to-volume percent of acetic acid present in commercial vinegar and the weight-to-volume percent of ammonia present in window cleaners. Acid-base titrations can be conducted using the above samples against standardized aqueous NaOH and standardized aqueous HCl solutions respectively. 2. Introduction: Acetic acid, commonly known as ethanoic acid CH3COOH, is found in commercial vinegar. It is a weak organic acid that gives vinegar its characteristic pungent smell, sour taste and slight acidity. Being an acid, vinegar is used as a mild disinfectant in cleaning agents as well as a food preservative. Ammonia, NH3, is used in household and industrial cleaning agents due to its ability to solubilize grease. In this experiment, we shall use acid-base titration…

Analysis of Commercial Bleach

Introduction: Many commercial products are effective because they contain oxidizing agents. Some products that contain oxidizing agents are bleaches, hair coloring agents, scouring powders, and toilet bowl cleaners. The most common oxidizing agent in bleaches is sodium hypochlorite, NaClO (sometimes written NaOCl). Commercial bleaches are created by bubbling chlorine gas into a sodium hydroxide solution (remember this from your “funky redox rxns”?). Some of the chlorine is oxidized to the hypochlorite ion, ClO- and some is reduced to the chloride ion, Cl- (a disproportionation reaction). The solution remains strongly basic. The chemical equation for the process is: Cl2(g) + 2OH- (aq) —> ClO- (aq) + Cl- (aq) + H2O (l) The amount of hypochlorite ion present in a solution of…

Impure Sodium Carbonate

Introduction: To determine the total amount of carbonate in unrefined sodium carbonate, soda ash, a titration is done using a standardized solution of HCl. Aqueous HCl is a strong acid and therefore almost completely disassociates into H+ and CL-. Therefore, when HCl is used in a titration, the H+ is the titrant. Carbonate in aqueous solution is able to accept a proton, i.e. it acts as a base. When carbonate accepts the H+ a bicarbonate ion is formed. Na2CO3(aq) + HCl(aq)  NaHCO3(aq) + NaCl(aq) This is not the complete reaction for the titration because bicarbonate is able to accept one more proton. This reaction produces carbonic acid which decomposes to sodium chloride, water and carbon dioxide. NaHCO3(aq) + HCl(aq)…

Prelab for Calibration of Volumetric Glassware

1). Weigh a 50 mL Erlenmeyer flask. Make sure the glassware is clean and free of any cracks or stars. Also, take note of the temperature of water, as volume varies with temperature 2). Transfer a portion of the water to flask with a pipette and record the mass of flask with the water. Use this data to calculate how much water was transferred from the pipette to the flask. 3). Repeat step two 4 times, ensuring the remaining results are similar to the first trial. Use this data to calculate the mean amount of water transferred and the standard deviation between the data points. Calibration of a 50 mL Buret: 1). Fill the buret with 50 mL of the…

Determine the mass of calcium carbonate in chicken eggshells

ApparatusUncertainty 25.00 cm3 pipette ± 0.03 cm3 50.00 cm3 burette ± 0.05 cm3 250.0 cm3 volumetric flask ± 0.3 cm3 50.0 cm3 measuring cylinder ± 0.5 cm3 Electronic balance± 0.01 g Uncertainty of apparatus Measurement Mass of eggshell = 3.15 ± 0.01 g Volume of HCl added = 50.00 ± 0.5 〖cm〗^3 Volume of solution = 250.0 ± 0.3 〖cm〗^3 Volume of NaOH pipetted = 25.00 ± 0.03 〖cm〗^3 Titration number Rough12 Initial burette reading of NaOH/ ± 0.05 cm3 0.000.000.00 Final burette reading of NaOH / ± 0.05 cm3 11.8011.7011.20 Volume of NaOH titrated / ± 0.10 cm3 11.8011.7011.20 Titration table: data collected from burette of amount of HCl used for the colour of the solution with methyl orange…