To begin, it is possible to state that time management is a technology which helps to organize time in the most effective way. Moreover, time management system allows people not only to be more productive in organizing their time, but also not miss something very important. According to different sources, the first attempt to develop a system of time management was made by a Roman philosopher, statesman and poet Lucius Annaeus Seneca in the first decade of the new era. Of course, Seneca’s attempts were different from modern approach to time management, but they were also important for people in ancient times.
So, it becomes obvious that people from the early beginning of our civilization tried to organize their time and to spend it in the more efficient way. Today the organization of time is considered in close connection with the lifestyle of the person as a tool for maximal realization of the personal potential according with the values, world view and outlook of the person. We consider the mission of the human being as a prerequisite for the formation of the purposes, goals – as a subject for equipment with criteria, values - as a basis for prioritization, and thirst for self-development – as the primary motivator. Of course, according to Van Eerde (2003), it can be stated that the one who does nothing needs no discipline.
Therefore, the more we have plans, desires, goals and intentions, the more we feel the need for time management. The more interesting and richer life of a man is, the more necessary is an organization, a reasonable allocation of time during the entire set of cases and duties. Thus, discipline, planning, ability to make a schedule and stick to it – all of this is not an end in itself because these concept can be considered the tools with which help the person to carry out his goals, and achieve more success. Time is the capital, which is available to each of us, and we need to dispose this capital correctly. König & Kleinmann (2007) stated that the sense of time management is to subdue the first minute, and gradually all human life to the true purpose of our existence, and learn to separate the values of life from the points which require attention and do not work. The alignment of goals according to their priority will help to organize not only the person’s time but also his life as a whole.
After all, sometimes the most difficult is to do just the first step – to understand own aspirations and formulate plans in life. The priority of a target determines the amount of time that the person will be able to give to its realization. Because of proper assess of the importance of cases the person will be able to allocate time sinks – activities that distract the person from the goal, and that do not have anything to do with the person’s life plan, and which the person can abandon without any regret. In summary, we can say that time management does not give an absolute guarantee of success in business and personal life. Without its presence such a success is impossible in principle. The focus of time management is in the following moments. To manage the own time does not mean living with a stopwatch in hand. True time management, primarily includes:
* ability to set goals
* planning of the own activities: formulation of objectives, selection of optimal solutions, the most effective ways to achieve these goals
* development of skills of self-control, the ability to independently evaluate the success (or failure) of the own actions
* metering of time, the ability to effectively use all available reserves of time. Thus, everything of the mentioned above is neither more nor less than the steps to a more organized, more intense, productive and successful life. Perhaps, an ordinary person has the impression that to build the own life according to the laws of time management means the existence in a rigid framework, continual monitoring, watchful “shadowing” for the own actions.
In reality, it is not necessary to be afraid of such a kind of discipline. In fact, the main “charm” of time management consists precisely in the fact that the person becomes freer, before he opens up broad prospects and new opportunities. It means to take life into the own hands. According to Häfner & Stock (2010), there were made many researches in the area of time management, and it was found that a person who thoughtfully plan the own day has enough time to solve all the priorities, it is even often enough time to deal with secondary tasks, and if a person is lucky, he will also find time for minor problems. However, if a person does not know how to prioritize, if one or another task grabs the one’s attention during the day, then time sorely lacking often the most important thing remains to be done.
If the problem is not solved in a day, it is transferred to the plan to the next day. If a deal roams from one to another page of the person’s diary and remains unfinished then it is necessary to consider carefully whether it is needed to pursue the case at all. If it is necessary to achieve something, then the person should to check whether priority is identified correctly. According to the Pareto principle, only 20% of all cases result in 80% of the planned result. So, people who have achieved success in their lives devote much time to planning. Thus, according to Dobson (2009), everyday planning is very important to improve the efficiency of time management. An important moment is hidden in the fact that planning on paper is more effective than just thinking. In such a way, task list – this is a card that will not let every person to stay on track for the planned objectives. Moreover, working with a list of scheduled tasks multiplies productivity by 25%.
Dobson, M. (2009). Real-World Time Management. AMACOM.
Häfner, A. & Stock, A. (2010). Time Management Training and Perceived Control of Time at Work. The Journal of Psychology, 144 (5). König, C. & Kleinmann, M. (2007). Time Management Problems and Discounted Utility. The Journal of Psychology, 141 (3). Van Eerde, W. (2003). Procrastination at work and time management training. The Journal of Psychology, 137 (5).