What are three types of appeals/themes being used in advertisements? Explain what it should be used and provide examples
What are the pros and cons using celebrity sports figures to promote a company’s products? Explain the kind of impact sports celebrity endorses have in the average person purchases.
Advertising is any paid form of non personnel presentation and promotion of ideas, or services by an identified sponsor. Advertisers include not only business firms, but also museums, charitable organizations, and government agencies that direct messages to target publics. Ads are a cost-effective way to disseminate messages, whether to build brand preference for Coco-cola or to educate people to avoid hard drugs.
The advertising objectives must flow from prior decision on target market, market positioning, and marketing mix. An advertising goal (or objectives) is a specific communication task and achievement level to be accomplished with a specific audience in a specific period of time. The following are the three common approaches to advertising: Humor; Fear Appeals; Sex Appeals
Humor: When used correctly and in the right circumstances, humor can be an extremely effective technique. The use of advertising is extensive, representing approximately 25% of all television advertising in the U.S. and over 35% in the U.K. The humorous advertisements in these countries involve the use of incongruity resolution. It provokes an effort to resolve the meaning of the ad. A thorough review of research on the effects of humor leads to the following tentative conclusions:
– Humor is an effective method for attracting attention to advertisements.
– Humor enhances liking of both the advertisement and the advertised brand.
– Humor does not necessarily harm comprehension.
– Humor does not offer an advantage over nonhumor at increasing persuasion.
– Humor does not enhance source credibility.
– The nature of the products affects the appropriateness of using humor. Specifically, humor is more successfully used with established rather than new products. Humor also is more appropriate for products for products that are more feeling-orientated, or experiential, and those that are not involving (such as inexpensive consumer packaged goods)
Fear Appeals: Advertisers invoke fear appeals by identifying either; (1) the negative consequences of not using the advertised product or (2) the negative consequences of engaging in unsafe behavior (such as drinking and driving, smoking)
Aside from the ethical issue of whether fear should be used at all, the fundamental issue for advertisers is determining how intense the fear presentation should be. Neither extremely strong nor very weak fear appeals are maximally effective. It seems that appeals at a somewhat moderate level of fear are best. A simple explanation for this might be that is an appeal is too weak; it just does not attract attention. If it is too strong, on the other hand, it may lead people to avoid the message or ignore the message’s recommendations as being inadequate to the task of eliminating the feared event.
This conclusion, which has been termed the inverted-U explanation (from the form of functional relation-literally am inverted U – between the level of fear intensity and the degree if persuasive effectiveness), has not stood up under scrutiny. Another alternative degree-of-relevance explanation holds that the optimum level of fear. People who are highly involved in a topic can be motivated by a relatively small amount of fear, whereas a more intense level of fear is required to motivate uninvolved people.
Sex Appeals: Sex appeals in advertising are used frequently and with explicitness. The trend is not restricted to the United States; indeed, sexual explicitness is more prevalent and more overt elsewhere-for example, in Brazil and certain European countries. Sex in advertising actually takes two forms: nudity and suggestiveness. It is uncertain which form is more effective, but it has several potential roles.
– Sexual material in advertising act as initial attentions lure while also retaining that attention for a longer period; often featuring attractive models in provocative poses. It us a strong attention-getter.
– The sexual content or symbolism will enhance recall if it is appropriate to the product category. The advertisements for Guess Jeans attractive models in provocative poses might be considered instances of appropriate usage of sex in as much as sexual appeal is a key attribute of this particular product.
– To evoke emotional responses such as feelings of arousal or even lust. These reactions can increase an ad’s persuasive impact, with the opposite occurring if the ad elicits negative feelings such as disgust, embarrassment, or uneasiness.
Sexual content stands little chance of being effective unless it is directly relevant to an advertisement’s primary selling point. When used appropriately, however, sexual content is capable of eliciting attention, enhancing recall, and creating a favorable association with the advertised product.