1. The title of the story. The function of the title is to inform the reader briefly of what the text or story that follows is about. Sometimes titles show individuality оf the writer. They are characterizing by shortness and catching character. A skillful worked out title tells the whole story on enough of the story to satisfy the reader’s curiosity.
2.The plot of the story. Most novels and stories have plots. Every plot is arrangement of meaningful events. The plot has such kind of structure of components: a) exposition or introduction (contains a short presentation of time and place and characters; it is usually to be found at the beginning of the story):b) complication (is separate incident helping to unfold action and might involve thoughts and feelings as well); c) climax (is the moment on which the fate of the charachters and the final action depends; it is the point at which the forces in the conflict reach the highest intensity); d) denouement (not all stories have a denouement; some stories write after the climax leave it up to the reader to judge what will be the outcome of the conflict)
3. The main elements of the story. Any work consists of relatively independent elements such as narration, description, dialogue and interior monolog. Narration is dynamic; it gives a continuous account of events. Description is static; it is a verbal portrayal of an object person or scene. It may be detailed and directs or impressionistic, giving few but stretching details. Though the dialogue the characters are better portrayal, it also brings the action nearer to the reader, makes it more swift and more intensify. Interior monolog renders the thoughts and feelings of a character
4.Who is the story told by. The way a story is presented key element in fictional structure. This involves both the angle of vision, the point from which the people events and other details are viewed and also the words of the story. The story can be told by: a) one of the characters of the story; b) somebody else who doesn’t take part; c) the other himself; d) the first person singular. 5. The order of events. During the analysis of the text we should mention about the order of events. The are two types of the order: a) chronological order (it means every event follows each other step by step from the beginning till the end); b)retrospective order, (it means that after one event can follow another event, for example, which happened in the past and also changing of this events. In other words there are jumps back in time.
6.The theme and the idea. The theme of the story is like unified general idea about life that entire story reveals. The author gives direct statement of the theme in a story it is up to the reader to collect and combine all his observations and finally to try to formulate the theme illustrated by the story. The idea of the story is for what kind of purpose the author wrote this, or that story and what he wanted to show the readers, for example, how the friendship influences on the person what is relationship.
7. The mood or tone of the story. The author’s choice of characters events situation details and his choice of words are by no means accidental. Whatever lead us to enter the author’s attitude to his subject matter is called tone or mood. Like the tone of voice the tone of the story makes us feel anger, affection, emotion, sorrow, scorn.
8. Main characters and ways of characterization. The description of the different aspects (physical, social) of a character is known as characterization. When the author describes the character himself or makes another do it, it is called direct characterization. When the author shows the character in action and lets the reader judge for him the author uses the indirect method of characterization. Characters are called round if they are complex and develop or change in the course of the story.
Flat characters are usually one-sided, constructed round a single trait; if two characters have distinctly opposing features, one serves as a foil to the other, and the contrast between them becomes more apparent. Round and flat characters have different functions in the conflict of the story. The conflict may be external, i.e. between human beings or between man and the environment (individual against nature, individual against the established order/values in the society).
9. Stylistic devices. A11 the writers use a lot of emotionally colored words and these words build the the bulk of stylistic devices. The authors use such kind of devices in their works as epithets, metaphors, metonymy, simile, irony etc. The use of devices makes the authors words more animated, very interesting and catching.
10. Your own opinion about the text. That is an evaluating of everything that you like or dislike, good or bad or, for example, what would you do if you were one of the heroes of the story.