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Theory Essay Topics & Paper Examples

Business Research Methods

1. Distinguish among the following sets of items, and suggest the significance of each in a research context: a. Concept and construct – A concept is a generally accepted collection of meanings or characteristics that are concrete whereas a construct is image or idea invented for a particular theory or research problem; a construct is an abstract concept. To successfully perform a research, we must form common ground; hence, the need for concepts and constructs. b. Deduction and induction – a deduction is a conclusive inference while an induction is a conclusion from one or more pieces of evidence. c. Operational definition and dictionary definition – an operational definition is a definition based on measurement criteria that have empirical reference…

Discuss Proto-Luke Theory

Whilst other scholars had previously thought of Mark’s Gospel as the foundation for Luke, B.H. Streeter refutes these views and suggests the opposite. He named this theory ‘Proto-Luke’, which suggests that while putting together his gospel, Luke wrote an early draft which was primarily made up of Q and L sources, before he became acquainted with Mark. This Marcan material was used as a secondary source, which was later slotted into an existing composition, which makes up the present gospel. The previous draft, which excluded any Marcan content, was dubbed Proto-Luke. Arguments supporting Streeter’s hypothesis include the very structure of Luke’s Gospel. Rather than interweaving the Q, L and Marcon sources together, the gospel alternates between five large blocks from…

A Critical Review of Erikson’sTheory

The Psychosocial Stages of Development is Erik Erikson’s major contribution to personality formation. According to his theory, an individual passes through eight stages of development. Each stage has its own unique characteristics. This paper will focus on the strengths and weaknesses of Erikson’s Theory as well as its application to adult learning and in real life. A Critical Review of Erikson’sTheory Erik Erikson’s Theory Explained Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages of Development holds a significant place as far as studying and understanding human development is concerned. His place in psychology cannot be discounted because of the contribution he gave to the field. Although Erikson’s theory is similar in some aspects with other personality development theories, there are some unique distinctions as…

Ecological Theory and Beautification

The ecological theory in criminology maintains that the physical environment where people are situated influences certain human behaviors. The theory has its scientific advantages and disadvantages when compared to the process of “beautification,” which is the process of visually improving a city or town specifically one that is situated in an urban area. For the most part, the assertions of the ecological theory are not significantly dependent on the dominant ethnic group living in a particular area, thereby suggesting that the findings of the theory do not depend on subjective human relations but rather on the physical environment where they are located. It has a scientific advantage in the sense that it avoids the problems brought about by the relative…

Fifth Element of Game Theory

As each of the competing companies watchfully study the moves made by the others in the same industry they all belong to, they sometimes end up deciding to just do the best they can to win the biggest share in the market – without spending more time focusing of the others. This direction, when taken by the industry players, results to the occurrence of “Nash equilibrium. ” (Economics 11th Edition by Richard G. Lipsey & Paul N. Courant, UK: HarperCollins College Publishers, 1996) The above graph illustrates the Nash equilibrium and the optimum result that it leads to (Osborne, An Introduction to Game Theory). As opposed to how badly things may end up for the competing players, Nash equilibrium brings…

Organization behavior

1.) Critically review learning theory. Learning theory is a routine that is carried out on a daily basis in order to have an experience in various fields of work. There are several theories that explain learning theory. One of the theories is Maslow’ Hierarchy of needs which explains that, when the need level is satisfied, it ceased to become a motivator and fulfillment of higher level is the next goal. (Francesco and Gold, 2005).The second theory is Hertzberg’s motivation hygiene theory which states that, employees’ growth and esteem needs are driven by the motivation factors, responsibility and achievement. This wills results into a job satisfaction at work place. (Francesco and Gold, 2005). The third theory is McClelland’s learned needs theory…

The Theory Of The Unitary Executive

The theory of the ‘unitary executive’ posits that the constitution vests all executive power in the executive. Thus it is a breach of the constitution for other arms of the executive to try and limit the powers of the president in his execution of his duties. Attempts by Congress to limit the ability of the president to prosecute the war on terror should be seen in this light. President Bush established the Department of Home land Security in the aftermath of the 9/11 bombings and most of the executive orders he has made since then have taken advantage of this theory. He has been able to consolidate a lot of power in the executive and is at the risk of…

Questions Regarding Darwin’s Theory

Darwin’s theory of natural selection is revolutionary and he himself is aware of the many difficulties that critiques might throw at him. In his book, “The Origin of the Species,” he explored these difficulties beginning with the question as to why there are often no intermediate or middle forms between species that are closely related. His answer to this is that the tough competition in nature combined with the small number of intermediate forms often led to their extinction. Only the well-adapted species survive in the wild, and so intermediate forms that don’t have the most adaptive characteristics are easily wiped out from nature. One of the key ideas in Darwin’s theory is that adaptive characteristics in animals are formed…

The Mystery of the Mummy’s Curse

The purpose of this essay is to explain the mystery behind “the mummy’s curse”. I will do this by first explaining the theory that some believe to be “the curse of the pharaoh”. Secondly, I will discuss the scientific theories behind the mysterious deaths of the men who were present at the opening of King Tutankhamen’s tomb. Finally, I will conclude with the theory I believe to be true. The first theory, I will discuss is the urban myth about “the mummy’s curse”. There was a message outside of the tomb that was translated to say “Death Shall Come on Swift Wings to Him Who Disturbs the Peace of the King”. Legend has it that anyone who dared open the…

Administrative Theory

The issue about the ability of public servants to serve the best interest of the public through a solid public governance and administration system has always been an important point in related debates and discussions. In this paper, the focus will be on the role of the Administrative Theory, its related perspectives and paradigm, and how disaster response actions act as a mirror reflecting the state of public service, and the significance (or lack of) of the Administrative Theory in today’s world. Disasters, some say, bring out the best in everyone. If this was true, then the worst disasters can be used to gauge public service and the ability and competence of public servants as well as the use and…

Microeconomic Theory

1. Explain why society faces a trade-off between consumption goods and capital goods. Society is faced with trade off between consumption goods and capital goods in that resources are scarce, and therefore it has to make choices based on the opportunity costs of benefiting from consumption at present or having a greater level of consumption tomorrow through investment in capital goods. 2. Distinguish between absolute and comparative advantage. Absolute advantage refers to that trade, which is not reciprocally favorable as opposed to a Comparative trade, where trade is reciprocally favorable. 3. Explain the Law of Demand. The law of demand states that as the price of a service or good increases, consumer demand for the service or good will decrease…

Collective Consensus Theory

Social norms can be defined as – The rules that a group uses for appropriate and inappropriate values, beliefs, attitudes and behaviors. These rules may be explicit or implicit. Failure to stick to the rules can result in severe punishments, the most feared of which is exclusion from the group. A common rule is that the some norms must frequently be displayed; neutrality is seldom an option. Here I include other norms, which are as follows: a. ) Injunctive Norms – These are behaviors, which are perceived as being approved of by other people. b. ) Descriptive Norms – The perceptions of how other people are actually behaving and whether their behavior is accepted or not. c. ) Explicit Norms…

2012: It’s the End of the World

If you had only one more day to live, how would you want to spend it? Who would you want to spend it with? There are currently 6,773,643,360 people in the world, of course give or take a few, and in a mere 3 years and seven months, every single one of those people may be faced with that same question. Forty-Four months, 1,309 days, 31,416 hours; no matter how you look at it, that’s all you have left, as some would say. Many people have heard of the ancient Mayans, and know that they reigned thousands of years ago. What they may not know is one little invention of theirs could impact the lifespan of every human being today…

Unit Nine Final

The scientific method can be defined simply as a series of steps. There are five steps to the scientific method that are used. These steps consist of making an observation, proposing a hypothesis, accepting or rejecting the hypothesis, and revising it as if it had been rejected; or draw conclusions as if it had been accepted. Every theory will not use all of the steps each and every time. While testing these theories, scientists should always keep an open mind simply because with science the outcomes of the results are unknown (Trefil, (2010). The first scenario involves waking up in the morning and having nor running water. This observation was made when waking up and going to get into the…

Social Control Theory

Akin to the labeling theory, the social control theory also holds society responsible for the emergence of deviance. But instead of arguing that deviance is a result of labels imposed by society, the social control theory asserts that people resort to wrongdoing because of the absence or social bonds or socialization processes that are supposed to promote law-abiding conduct. Simply put, some people commit deviant behaviors because they were not educated regarding societal norms. Juvenile delinquents, for instance, may be dismissed as the product of dysfunctional families (Jensen, 2003). Human beings by nature are active and flexible organisms who engage in a wide variety of activities. The range of the activities that they join in, however, is gradually limited by…

The test of a good theory is how well its stands up in the real world

This paper attempts to prove that the test of a good theory is how well it stands up in the real world. The world is full of problems and some of the greatest problems are found in term of unpredictability. Knowing what will happen as a consequence from doing something now is therefore the essence of good theory because everybody want to be assured that what one has will turn out to be beneficial or will bear something good to that person . The world of business in particular is a worth of a big uncertainty where decision makers attempt to be correct in predicting the future. To illustrate every investor wants to know if stock prices will go up…

German Political Theory

The early German philosophers have been some of the most controversial and well-acclaimed philosophers in the history of political theory. Individuals such as Immanuel Kant, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Jurgen Habermas have revolutionized the mechanisms of the world of human beings with their daring thoughts and radical insights. It is through their critical thought about the things they observe around them that they have created a new way by which society has been able to move on through the years. One of the more critical aspects of German philosophy is the fact that it is highly diverse. The ideologies and principles, although supposedly based on a single culture, that have come from the…

Cyclical Political Theory

Personally, I subscribe to the opinion that what we have in this world is a necessary connection between things. Technically, something can not come out of nothing. Actions are interrelated and whether we accept it or not, they overlap. Thus, I accept George Modelski’s position in his cyclical political theory. However for me, this principle is not only limited to only political events but all areas of life. In the case of World War I and World War II, I hold the position that both of them are not two separate political events. Why do I hold this claim? The truth is that if we look at both events critically, one would see that both wars are one and the…

The Theory of special relativity

Abstract: Prior to albert Einstein’s theory of special relativity there was always an idea about relativity. Through Galilean transformations, which worked perfectly with the newton’s laws of motion, people had formed a vague idea that all motion in this world is relative to something else. There came up the mysterious thing called aether — the medium through which light propagated. The belief in aether had caused a mess of things, in Einstein’s view, by introducing a medium that caused certain laws of physics to work differently depending on how the observer moved relative to the aether. In 1905, Albert Einstein published the theory of special relativity, which explains how to interpret motion between different inertial frames of reference — that…

Online Resort Reservation and Billing System

1. Pelagianism is a theological theory named after Pelagius (AD 354 – AD 420/440), although he denied, at least at some point in his life, many of the doctrines associated with his name. It is the belief that original sin did not taint human nature and that mortal will is still capable of choosing good or evil without special Divine aid. This is still sometimes called Limited Depravity. Thus, Adam’s sin was “to set a bad example” for his progeny, but his actions did not have the other consequences imputed to original sin. Pelagianism views the role of Jesus as “setting a good example” for the rest of humanity (thus counteracting Adam’s bad example) as well as providing an atonement…

Lev Vygotsky’s Theory

The development or the growing-up process of a child has been considered as the most critical and crucial part of a person’s life. It is in this stage where most changes take place which determines the strength or weakness of the foundations of one’s skills and capabilities as he or she grows up. Human development has also been an interesting topic or research in the field of psychology over the years. Theories and concepts have been formulated and developed in order to create a wide understanding of the process of human development as it plays a significant part in a person’s foundation as an adult. The developmental process of a child includes several aspects like the physiological, emotional, and cognitive…

Reforming, Transforming and Conforming

In this essay I will discuss the comparisons and differences of the three models of theory and learning as identified by MacNaughton, Conforming, Reforming and Transforming (MacNaughton, 2003). This essay will look at how these theories are explained and can be applied individually or together within the learning pedagogy. My discussion will be of a reflective nature and include how I have understood these three models in relation to the early childhood learning environment and how I may relate them to my own developing education philosophy. Each theory will be discussed with a focus on one or two particular theorist. For Conforming I will look at theorists from both the nature and nurture perspective, Gesell and Skinner. The Reforming component…

Critics on Cooperative Principle

As phrased by Paul Grice, who introduced it, it states, “Make your contribution such as it is required, at the stage at which it occurs, by the accepted purpose or direction of the talk exchange in which you are engaged. “[1] Though phrased as a prescriptive command, the principle is intended as a description of how people normally behave in conversation. Speakers and listeners involved in conversation are generally cooperating with each other. For reference to be successful, it was proposed that collaboration was a necessary factor. In accepting speaker’s presuppositions, listeners normally have to assume that a speaker who says his something really does have that which is mentioned and isn’t trying to mislead the listener. This sense of…

Gestalt Learning Theory

Doing my research on learning and instruction in complex simulation-based learning environments, I experienced a large difference in how learners reacted to my learning material (Kluge, in press, 2004). Complex technical simulations involve the placement of the learner into a realistic computer simulated situation or technical scenario which puts control back into the learner’s hands. The contextual content of simulations allows the learner to “learn by doing. ” Although my primary purpose was in improving research methods and testing procedures for evaluating learning results of simulation-based learning, the different reaction of our participants were so obvious that we took a closer look. I had two different groups participating in my learning experiments: students from an engineering department at the University,…

Scientific Methods

Ruben wants to determine if listening to different types of music will have an effect on a person’s pulse. His hypothesis states that if a person listens to rap music, their pulse will increase more than if they listen to other types of music. Ruben takes each participant’s pulse before, during, and after listening to 30 minutes of music. He has his mother listen to rock music, his sister listen to classical music, and his friend listen to rap music. From the data collected, he determined that rap music raises a person’s pulse the most. 1.Identify the independent and dependent variables in Ruben’s hypothesis. The independent variable is listening to music for 30 minutes. The dependent variable is the persons…

Fred Hoyle and the Big Bang Theory

History is such a hard thing to study. The older the story gets, the tougher it is to retrieve facts and details about it. Records are prone to be destroyed and lost as time goes by. But the most demanding task of all is to determine the elements of an event that happened even before anyone could make a record of. Or even a time when no possible witness exists to tell the story to the future. The beginning of the universe is one such thing. It is impossible for someone to come up with an answer that would specifically define certain details and factors that happened thousands or millions of years ago. Theories have been constantly formed, upgraded, and…

Plato’s The Allegory of the Cave: The Experience of Reality

The Allegory of the Cave In the Allegory of the Cave it is explain how reality is different for everybody. Not all of us have the same view of what reality is, most of us believe in what we see and that is the reality we know and the one we believe in. In this allegory we hear the story of prisoners who are chained in a cave just looking at a wall in front of them, behind them there is a fire and between that fire and them there is way, here is where people pass by and when this happens, the prisoners are able to see their shadows and this, for them is the reality. Then a prisoner…

Management Theories

Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations discusses the optimal organization of a pin factory; this becomes the most famous and influential statement of the economic rationale of the factory system and the division of labor. Major works of Adam Smith The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759) An Inquiry Into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776) Essays on Philosophical Subjects (published posthumously 1795) Lectures on Jurisprudence (published posthumously 1776) Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres Frederick W. Taylor sometimes called “the father of scientific management.” He was one of the intellectual leaders of the Efficiency Movement and his ideas, broadly conceived, were highly influential in the Progressive Era. The Principles of Scientific Management, published in 1911. His…

Models and Theories

New technological advances have changed the way organizations are preparing for the future. Management must focus on the human implications resulting from the implementation of new technology and be prepared for resistance and human implications resulting from technological changes. The way management prepares for the change can create a smooth transition or failure. Many theories and models for change have been created to help this transition. Choosing the right model or theory for your work place depends on the type of organization. Although you do not know how the workforce will react to the change, it is important to implement a strategy that will help foster the change. Many factors needed to be weighed to implement a successful change strategy….

Biology Questions

Q: Summarize the steps of the scientific method. Describe an experiment of your choice, which demonstrates the basic considerations that must be taken in the design of a good, manipulative experiment. Now that you know some details of how scientists solve problems, how might you apply that knowledge to your daily life? A: The scientific method is one of the most if not the most important method that scientists use to learn about the earth. The goal is to apply the scientific method to determine a cause and effect relationship. The scientific method is made up of five detailed steps, these steps are: I. Make an observation A scientist sees something that he cannot explain, but is very interested and…