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Theories Essay Topics & Paper Examples

Theories of Cognitive Development by Piaget and Vygotsky

Jean Piaget’s and Lev Semionovich Vygotsky’s theories on cognitive development both play a significant role in addressing the intellectual growth of children (Lain, 2006). Psychologists and educators alike, rely on these theories in constructing the standards by which children are being brought up and taught today. Essentially, cognitive development is the process by which our intellectual ability grows and progresses. Slavin (2003), maintains that cognitive development, “is the gradual and orderly changes that occur making ones mental process more complex and sophisticated” (as cited in Lain, 2006, Cognitive Development section, para. 1). As the children’s learning process is crucial to the development of their learning ability and critical thought process, educators must have a good grasp of these theories to…

Language Acquistion Theories

Bridging two worlds : Reading comprehension , figurative language instruction , and the English language learner ‘ Name University Introduction Many students in American schools today speak English as a foreign language . The English language learner (ELL ) finds that English contains words and phrases that may seem confusing because of the disparity between the literal and figurative meanings . These words and phrases are used in everyday conversations by native speakers but ELL students find them hard to decode not only because of their figurative meanings but because of the various meanings one figurative word or phrase could contain depending on the context by which it is used . The inability to interpret figurative language “leads to a…

The Dispositional and Learning Theories

An individual’s personality is his/her distinctive pattern behavioral tendencies or psychological process that defines how he/she reacts with the environment. Personality manifests itself in one’s behavior towards others people and situations in the surrounding. While some aspects of personality are genetically inherited, others are picked from one’s environment. Personality that is influenced by the environment is developed by the context of the family or culture of the close society (Carver et al, 2000). Psychologists who study personality characterize personality traits and scrutinize their influence on and prediction of one’s behaviors. In addition to comparing and contrasting dispositional and learning theories of personality, this paper discusses the role of personality in influencing one’s behavior. The personality theories of disposition and learning…

Latest Earth Theories

Plate tectonics rend to describe the huge scale motions of the earth’s lithosphere. The theory actually encompasses old concepts of the continental drift developed in the twentieth century and seafloor distribution hence it was clearly understood from the year 1960. The modern theory states that the lithospheric plate movement means the continental drift and it is caused by the radioactive mantle that normally produces heat and the elements within the core. Consequently, the heat creates the conversion currents within the mantle that tend to drive the plates all along their path of the movement. Hence, when plates crash, denser plates submerge underneath lighter, less dense crustal plates along subduction zones. As much as very heavy plates move downward they really…

Psychological Theories of Pedophilia and Ephebophilia

The problem of pedophilia and ephebophilia was recently highlighted with the successive scandals involving many catholic priests who allegedly abused children and minors. Although the problem was sensationalized with the recent scandals, it must be noted that it is not limited to the catholic clergy as “It’s a problem that strikes anywhere, every walk of life, every race, and every social level”. (Richmond, 2009) The article “Psychological Theories of Pedophilia and Ephebophilia” attempts to explain the underlying theories that explain the said sexual deviant behaviors. It distinguishes the difference between a pedophilia, an adult who has recurrent, intense sexual urges and sexual fantasies involving a prepubescent child below 13 years old and an ephebophilia, who has recurrent, intense sexual urges…

Psychodynamic Personality Theories

Contemporary society is intrigued with the notion of human behavior as it expresses itself in our personality. Psychoanalytic model is most noted for introspective strategies such as depth interviewing and projective techniques, which have emanated from its theoretical perspective. Classical psychoanalytic conceptualization approached the study of character or personality in two very different ways, each deriving from an early theoretical model of individual development. In the era of Freud’s original drive theory, an attempt was made to understand personality on the basis of fixation. Later with the development of ego psychology, character was conceived as expressing the operation of particular styles of defense. This second way of understanding character was not in conflict with the first; it provided a different…

Behavioral Genetics

When I’ve learned about Behavioral Genetics in Chapter 8, the first thing that came across my mind was the fantasy of having a twin. It’s crazy but it occupied my mind for quite some time. What if I had a twin? Would she be like me? I’ve always believed that identical twins share the same qualities and traits. So I surfed the net and came across Minnesota Twin Family Study (MTFS). Conducted at the University of Minnesota by competent researchers, it is by far the largest twin study in the US. One particular case of the MTFS caught my attention: ‘The Jim Twins Study’. The twins were separated four weeks after birth to different adoptive parents who live 45 miles apart….

Family and the Sociological Theories

Since time immemorial, men have been petrified by sociology. The most basic definition of sociology is the study of human social behavior and grouping (Alexander, 1982). Sociology largely focuses on social relationships and the ramifications of these relationships on peoples’ behavior. There have been numerous attempts to understand and explain seemingly challenging situations in a society. These attempts constitute the various sociological theories which are geared towards giving explanations to the various phenomena in the society (Alexander, 1982). It is within the scope of this study to highlight on the impact of the sociological theories on the family institution. Introduction Sociological theories are sets of statements that endeavor to offer explanations to problems, phenomena, or human behavior (Alexander, 1982). Normally…

Falsifiable Scientific Theories

This paper is about the comparison and contrast of two equally strong theories about the view of the universe and its entities’ strategic formation. The geocentrism and heliocentrism theories are to be examined in terms of their falsifiability, as both had been cause of conflict of scientific thought in the earlier times. In Karl Popper’s account, any theory in the science can only be proven as scientific if and only if it is falsifiable. The conflict of thought between the two major structures of planetary movements, geocentrism and heliocentrism, we take into account the points wherein each is deemed falsifiable. The geocentric theory, as developed by Ptolemy, was the worldview which says that the Earth I the center of the…

History of enlightenment

(1) Newtonian theory vs. Einstein and Heisenberg The Newtonian theory refers to the work of one of the earliest scientists known as Isaac Newton who stated that, the laws of nature (gravity) controlled the stable movements of objects and also maintained the delicate balance that holds things firmly to the ground. However, since then this theory has been subjected to many conflicting philosophical views and opinions that have either challenged or supported it. The emergence of Albert Einstein and his genius in physics, for instance, gave way for heated debates about the credibility of the Newtonian theory of natural law and gravity. Albert Einstein in his proposed theory of relativism helped to extend Newtonian dynamics to include motion at speeds…

Functionalist theories

The functionalist theory posits that the society is composed of interconnected parts which function like a social system. In a society, there are parts that work in a similar manner the human body works as a system made of different organs. The ‘organs’ of a society are the social institutions that are set up to work together to ensure that the society runs smoothly. Such institutions include schools and family set ups. Levin (2009, para 3) defines functionalism as “the doctrine that what makes something a thought, desire, pain (or any other type of mental state) depends not on its internal constitution, but solely on its function. ” As such, functionalism theories describe the mental state as a function of…

Some Systems Theories

The General Systems theory rises out of the human need to live in an orderly, deterministic world. Systemists see the world as a hierarchy of systems ‘from sub-atomic particles to civilizations'(), while other branches of science study the characteristics and the laws that govern specific sub-systems, General Systems theory is a search for the ‘law of laws’; A holistic principle that would explain and be applicable to all systems. A system can be defined as a complex whole created out of the interaction of separable components. Systems theory attempts to understand the principles that govern systems in general, without regard to the nature of the system, or the nature of the components of the system or their interrelationships (Skyttner, 2006)….

Grand Theories

Early nursing theorists were drawing from a different experience than we do today, but today’s nursing would probably not be what it is if it were not for the early Grand theorists. Florence Nightingale, Henderson, Peplau, and King all had strong influences on nursing in their own time and continue to influence nursing and nursing theory today. This paper will discuss that influence. Florence Nightingale, though seen as Grand theorists did not really have a theory; she really had a broad philosophy. Her basic tenet was healing and the philosophy consisted of healing, leadership, and global action (McEwen & Wills, 2007). Everything was focused on the needs of the patient. Nightingale felt that the physician was the one to write…

Motivational theories

Maslows Theory is based on the belief that we are motivated by needs and the theory states we must satisfy basic needs in order to concentrate on the higher priorities. And only when the basic needs are met can we move on to the next steps 1. Pysiological – All individuals needs to eat, sleep and drink as a priority 2. Safety – WE all need to feel safe in our homes and the working environment and managers can play a lead role in ensuring we care safe at work 3. Belonging – We need to feel loved and belonging both at home with our families but also in our work place 4. Esteem – Once the 3 basic need…

Psychological theories

There are several psychological theories that try to experience human behavior. They are mainly divided into six groups each with its focus (Burke, 2008). The behavioral theories look at human behavior based on the idea that it is through conditioning that behavior is acquired. Cognitive theories look at internalized states such as problem solving and motivation. Developmental theories offer thoughts on human development, growth and learning. Humanist theories look at human experiences as part of collective human needs and condition. Personality theories examine patterns of behavior, feelings and thoughts unique to a person. Social psychology theories examine social behavior and social phenomenon. All the theories look at human being and try to explain it (Burke, 2008). The theories offer as…

Rousseau and Hobbes’ Conception of State of Nature

Both Rousseau and Hobbes talked about state of nature but their understanding of state of nature and the first living of humanity is quite different from each other. Their views are similar in some points but mostly they contrast with each other. These differences in their thoughts are mainly because of their understanding of human nature and also their view of man. For Hobbes, state of nature is a state of war and because of this, every individual are against each other and because of their basic instincts they are dangerous for each other but as a contrary Rousseau’s thought about humanity is totally different and because of this at least in the first base of the state of nature…

Theories of Development

Jean Piaget (1896 – 1980) Piaget focuses on cognitive development; he was all about the child centred approach, he believed children are active learners and make sense of the world through their own experiences. Piaget believed that a child develops through a series of pre-determined stages to adulthood and said that a child needs to be at a specific stage of development to learn new concepts. His theory is concerned with the children rather than all learners and it focuses more on the development and not so much the learning which means this theory doesn’t really co-inside with learning of information and specific behaviours. Piaget influences current practise because the EYFS states that we need to have a balance of…

A Comparative Analysis on the Socio-Cultural Theories of Marx

Over the years, the names Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim, Max Weber, and Friedrich Nietzsche have been very dominant in the field of sociology, psychology, economics, and politics. In discussing the concepts of communism and materialism, the theories of Karl Marx cannot be disregarded. For Marx, the major influential factor in human history is economics (Cline 2008). According to Marx, even in the past, people were not moved by ostentatious ideas but rather by material things that helped them live and survive. Marx’s studies and theories also deal with explaining the roots of the collision of classes—the wealthy and labour classes. The conflict between the wealthy and labour classes became inevitable because of the rise of capitalism. Due to capitalism, there…

Creating Activities Based on Learning Theories

Behavioral teaching and learning tends to focus on skills that are acquired by an individual but are likely to be applied at a later stage in life. For instance, an individual may learn computational skills only to apply them when he gets a job. Behavioral theories support a number of approaches to teaching. All of them fall under the category of direct or teacher centered instruction. Operant conditioning on the other hand involves the reinforcement of behavior and mainly it is achieved either through reward or through punishment. The occurrence of a behavior determines whether it should be rewarded or it should be punished. To add to that, the kind of treatment administered after a behavior determines whether it will…

A Critique of Frye’s, Jordan’s, and Miller’s Feminist Theories

Marilyn Frye’s feminist theory is based on a mix of art and philosophy as well as a presentation of her own ideas in the context of the world. Frye’s theory stresses among other things, the fact that the power of feminism is embedded in the capability of making women’s lives and their experiences understood by a vast majority of the people (Frye, 1983). On the other hand, Jordan’s feminist theory lays emphasis on the woman’s self with reference to her relational well-being (Jordan, 1991). Closely related to this, Miller’s theory is based on the view that there is need to address women’s experiences and make the world understand them better. Thus, Miller suggests that in order to understand women, there…

Personality Theories

This paper will compare the Psychodynamic Theory and the Humanistic Theory. A description of each theory and its leading theorist will help in pointing out both their differences and similarities. Psychodynamic Theory, developed by Sigmund Freud in the 1900s, believes that most human behavior stems from their unconscious. That personality comes from beliefs, memories, feelings, and instincts of which the individual is not aware of (Feldman, 2010). According, to Freud the personality is made up of three major components; the Id, Ego, and Superego. The Id is the raw inborn part with sole purpose is to reduce tension caused by aggression and irrational impulse, operating according to the pleasure principle (Feldman, 2010). Ego acting as a buffer between the Id…