The Problem and its background
Retail, is the sale of goods and services from individuals or businesses to the end-user. This industry is a sector of the economy that is comprised of individuals and companies engaged in the selling of finished products to end user consumers. Retailers are part of an integrated system called the supply chain. A retailer purchases goods or production large quantities from manufacturers directly or through a wholesaler, and then sells smaller quantities to the consumer for a profit. Target Mall and Balibago Commercial Complex is popularly known in Santa Rosa City as the City’s shopping point where numerous of shoe store exist. The entrepreneurs behind these ventures risk their capital, invest their time and make a living by offering consumers something they need or want. Competition in the industry is strong.
There are a number of established players in the shoe industry with established market positions, brands and reputations. These two big establishments start to compete since then. And the competitive advantage seeks it to address some of the criticisms of comparative advantage. A competitive advantage means a firm manages to keep making money and to sustain its position against its competitors. Marketing men defines competitive advantages as a superiority gained by company where it can provide the same value but a lower fee, or charge higher fees by providing greater value through differentiation. It plays an intense part in determining the price leader. And for this reason, the researchers choose this topic in order to know the competitive advantage of Shoe Retail Stores in Target Mall and Balibago Commercial Complex.
The main objective of this study aims to examine the best quality of shoes in Target Mall and Balibago Commercial Complex, one of the best shopping points in Santa Rosa City, in terms of quality, that they meet the satisfaction of the consumers. Design that satisfies the needs and wants of stylish people. And price, that indeed in a low cost but in a good quality. Within the area, we used data gathering like survey questionnaires. It is important to know because many consumers are preferred to buy shoes. And this study will help them to figure out where the best products can be offered. In this thesis, we develop qualitative and quantitative distinctions between the single and married respondents. This study is important to all the consumers especially to those who often buy shoes It examines the reaction of the respondents towards the factors they used. We need to know the competitive advantages because we want to help the consumers where they can buy quality shoe products, yet the prices are affordable and the design of these goods are prefer to their tastes.
Background of the study
Balibago Commercial Complex and Target Mall is the most popular shopping point where you can have a retail product like shoes. Prospect customers from different neighboring barangays and towns used to go shopping at Balibago Commercial Complex because of low price product that they offer and the numerous store that attract the customers. Many stores were leased for permanent business operations and were own primarily by Filipinos, Muslims and Chinese. Balibago Commercial Complex is a wet and dry good market, and a host of bus, jeepneys, FX and tricycles terminals. Their latest foot traffic averages around 20-30 thousand people per day during weekdays, and as high as 40-45 thousand people during weekend. Some shoe retailers in Target Mall operate fixed point-of-sale locations designed to attract a high volume of walk-in customers.
They typically sell merchandise to the general public for personal consumption. Athletic shoes accounts for the biggest market share in shoe retail, with basketball and cross training are the most popular category in this segment. Both the men and women’s market segments are growing. Price-wise, however, men’s shoes are more expensive than women’s shoes. According to Ms. Lorlie Aruta, Leasing manager of Target Mall Santa Rosa, the latter started during year 1998; three year after the commercial complex was build. It has been a fixture in Laguna located at the very heart of Balibago Commercial Complex are these past (12) years owned by Southland Holdings Corporation. It is a three-level shopping mall with a total floor area of seventeen thousand five hundred square meters.
By that time, Target Mall is the preferred shopping place because there were no competitors yet around the commercial area. Although there were already shops existed that time, they were not numerous as today. It was when the early year 2000 entered; Shoe Retail Stores began to compete inside of Target Mall because the prices of goods are cheaper. At their first year of operation, only few numbers of stalls began. Since the area has a numerous population, the supply cannot meet the demand of customers. They have only minimum stocks of products. As year goes by, many store owners began to operate their own enterprise that they can give more variants to the customer. And the competition has also emerged.
Their mission is to be the most preferred shopping place in the community they serve. Their company vision is to be a shopping mall committed to satisfying the needs of the community where they are located in a convenient and comfortable atmosphere conducive to family shopping. They are committed to be responsive to the well-being of the residents of the community where they are located. Business success in today’s competitive markets requires a high understanding and respect of the customer. Customers are demanding, have more money to spend and have a wide collection of goods and services to choose from. To satisfy customers, we must be able to listen to their feedback and improve services and goods to keep of clients. And we come up with this study because we want to know the best shoe retail stores whether it is in Target Mall or in Balibago Commercial Complex, that offering the same products. And through this study, it will help not just us but to all consumers who frequently shopping within this area.
The following theories and principles cited were used as framework for the analysis of data in this research. According to Pagoso et.al (2006) consumer buyer behavior refers to the buying behavior of final consumer, individuals and household who buy goods and services for personal consumption. There are some factors that may be influential for consumers towards their preferences in buying goods. The first is culture, the most fundamental determinant of the consumer’s behavior towards buying. Filipinos are known for their ‘suki’ behavior the harmonious relationship of a seller with the customer that keeps him to come back on the same store which is a part of a Filipino culture. Social class which is relatively permanent in the society that has ordered divisions whose members show distinct product and brand preferences. Second one is social factors such as family, reference groups and social roles. Third, personal factor or personal characteristics like occupation which affects the goods and services bought by consumers, and economic situation that will affect product choice.
The last is psychological factors, influenced by motivations, perception and attitude. As on Paul Sammuelson’s (2000) theory of revealed preference, this theory is a method by which possible to discern consumer behavior on the basis of variable prices and income. In this theory, a consumer with a high income will buy a mixture of product if the consumer income changes, the mixture of goods and services will also change. According to Leano (2008) in his book “Fundamentals of Economics” opportunity cost is the value of what is foregone in order to have something else. The opportunity cost of individual’s decision is determined by his or her needs, wants, time and resources (income). Pagoso et. Al. (2006) cited in his book “Introductory Microeconomics” the substitution of price elasticity of demand, one factor of substitution is the number of competing products. More of these mean more market shares for a product to gain or lose when its price decreases or increases, respectively. Thus, a seller invites more exodus of demand when he under prices more rivals in a market where products homogenous in type and quality. This kind of competition is evident among adjacent retail outlets for the same product brands of more or less the same size like supermarkets, department store, book stores, and the like.
Conceptual Framework of the Study
| INPUT1. What are The competitive advantages of Shoe Retailer Stores in Target Mall and Balibago Commercial Complex in terms of:2.1 Product Quality2.2 Product Design2.3 Price| | PROCESS 1. Data gathering procedures: a. Distribution and retrieval of questionnaire b. Tabulation of data 2. Data analysis 3. Evaluation| | OUTPUTIdentified competitive advantages of Shoe Retailer Stores in Target Mall and Balibago Commercial Complex.|
Figure 1. The conceptual framework of the study.
Figure 1 shows the conceptual framework of the study. The “Input” frame shows the profile of the respondents as regard to age, gender and civil status, and the competitive advantages of Shoe Retailer Stores in Target Mall and
Balibago Commercial Complex. In terms of: quality, design and price.
The second frame is the “Process”. In this study, the process involved were the data gathering procedures which is includes distribution and retrieval of questionnaire, tabulation of data, data analysis and evaluation.
The third frame is the expected “Output”. In this study the product or output will provide a summary of the identified comparative study about the competitive advantages of Shoe Retailer Stores in Target Mall and Balibago Commercial Complex.
A system should automatically provide information about the output being processed and soon gives “Feedback” for the competitive advantages of Shoe Retailer Stores in Target Mall and Balibago Commercial Complex.
Statement of the Problem
This study aimed to find out what are the competitive advantages of the shoe retail business. Specifically the study sought the following questions.
1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of?
1.3 Civil Status
2. What are the competitive advantages of shoe retailer stores in Target Mall and Balibago Commercial Complex Complex in terms of: 2.1 Product Quality
2.2 Product Design
3. Is there a significant difference between the responses of the respondents in terms of competitive advantages of shoe retailer Stores in Target Mall and Balibago Commercial Complex, when they grouped according to civil status?
That, There is no significant difference between the responses of the
respondents in terms of competitive advantages of shoe retailer Stores in Target Mall and Balibago Commercial Complex, when they grouped according to civil status.
Significance of the Study
This study will benefit the following people and organization.
Customers- This study will help them to know and choose the best shoe products whether is it on Target Mall or Balibago Commercial Complex.
The tenants of Target Mall and of Balibago Commercial Complex – This would serve as a part of their environmental scan to help them develop their business strategies for them to continue operating.
Entrepreneurs-is to find out how the competitive advantages among competitors where they can improve the quality of customer service, the offered selections and general atmosphere at the shoe retail stores.
To the future researchers- this study would serve as additional information for future research undertaking especially to business students. To the researchers- this would serve not only as a pertain fulfillment on the academic requirement for their current course, but also additional knowledge that we can apply also in our chosen field Scope and Delimitation
This research is restricted and focused only to the customers or buyers of shoes in Target Mall and Balibago Commercial Complex area. The limitation of this study is the Shoe Retails stores that located in the said area.
Definition of Terms
In this study, terms were defined as follows:
Competitive Advantage- this is the performance of Target Mall compare to Balibago Commercial Complex products in terms of quality, design and price. Retail Business- This industry is a sector of the economy that is comprised of individuals and companies engaged in the selling of finished products to end user consumers. Quality- The standard of shoe products as measured against its similar kind. Design- The physical features and appearance of shoe products. Price- The amount of shoes in Target Mall and Balibago Commercial Complex. Shoe Retail Stores- Offer a quality but in a low cost of price to the consumers. Target Mall- The first mall established in Balibago.
Balibago Commercial Complex- The shopping point of City of Santa Rosa, Laguna. CHAPTER II
Review of related literature and studies
This chapter presents the secondary data of the study taken from different reference materials such as books, magazines, news, papers, and thesis. Foreign Literature According to Whittington, 2006 in his book entitled “What is Strategy – and does it matter” Strategy can be classified into four generic approaches: the classical approach, the evolutionary approach, the processual approach and the systemic approach. The evolutionary approach suggests that the environment is too unpredictable to foresee efficiently. Adherents of the evolutionary approach believe that it is the market that chooses which strategy will be successful, not the managers.
Processualists, on the other hand also believe that long-term planning is rather fruitless, and consider strategy to be a rational process. The systemic perspective suggests that strategy is an important matter that can carry out rational plans of action. Further, Whittington believes that it is possible to define strategies that will succeed in spite of market forces. The systemic approach stresses the importance of the social system, where strategy making occurs since different social backgrounds may lead to other interests than maximizing profit. And according to Whittington the classical approach sees strategy as a rational process that is designed to maximize long-term advantage. Classicists see strategy as something that is vital to secure the future, a rational process of long term planning. These four approaches stand for three different main views on the impact on how a company can influence its business success.
The evolutionary and processual approaches believe that planning is of minor importance since the environment has a great influence and will overwhelm the strategic plans. The systematic approach believes it is the social context that decides a company’s strategy have chosen to the classical approach, since it concedes with the view on strategy as a rational process. The classical approach also stands for the company’s own ability to influence its strategy and thereby its result, while the other approaches are more of the opinion that external factors have a great impact. Child and Weick support this reasoning by stating that: “The strategies, structures and processes of the organization are not predetermined by the business environment. Rather, organizations create their own environment by choosing the domain or competitive arena on which there markets, product, technology and ultimately their strategy are based.” Choosing the classical approach makes the study less extensive and we do not have to consider the external environment as a variable affecting strategy.
According to an article of a magazine entitled “Going shopping written by Satterwaite, malls in America are said to be declining and are scaring away customer. Americans prefer flea markets, antique shops, and other retail shopping centers more than shopping mall because of its “McDonalization” a stultifying sameness on the way customers buy products and some problems. Customer encounter every time they go to malls like waits for parking and long walks from store to store. Americans prefer a community meeting place that attempt to get back to the face to face transaction that in past decades engendered trust between buyers and sellers.
According to Bunge,Operational planning is in dispensable to the continuing vitality of any enterprise, whether that effort is apparent or not. The manners in which planning and its corollary, control, are handled are greatly affects the Profitability. Success and retention of the loyal customer will be won by `doing best what matters most to the customers. According to Porter Whittington, the goal of a strategist is to find a position in the industry where the company can protect itself against the surrounding forces, or might be able to influence them in a positive direction. If a company has knowledge about these surrounding sources of competitive pressure, it will provide the groundwork to decide where to position the company in its industry. According to Porter, it is important for a company to identify its strengths and weaknesses from a strategic viewpoint. Strategy can either be viewed as assembling protection against its competitive forces, or look for positions in the industry where the forces are weak.
Knowledge about its competitive forces will lead the company to enter areas where it should deal with competition and where to avoid it. In the study of buyer behavior, there are five theories which will throw some light into the complex native of man as buyer. These include 1.) Marshallian – man is concerned chiefly with economic cues. Prices and income makes a fresh utility calculation before each purchase. 2.) Parlovian – man behaves in a largerly habitual rather than thoughtful way. Certain configuration on cues will set of the same behaviour because of rewarded warning in the past. 3.) Freudian’s – man choices are influence strongly by motives and fantasies which takes place deep within is private world. 4.) Veblonian – man acts in a way which is shaped largely by past and present social groups. 5.) Hobbesian – man seeks to reconcile individual gain with organizational gain. Customer satisfaction depends on the product’s perceived performance relative to a buyer’s expectations. If the product’s performance falls short of expectations, the customer is dissatisfied. If performance matches expectations, the customer is satisfied.
If performance exceeds expectations, the customer is highly satisfied and delighted. According to the book of Murrell (2005) entitled “Empowering Employees” Employees doesn’t wait the bated breath to be empowered, they simply want to do better job and enjoy their work in the process. To outline how managers and employees can grow on the job, become more knowledgeable and therefore more employable, and thus become fully empowered. Together then, everyone in the organization has something to gain by creating more empowering workplaces. Empowerment doesn’t create narrowly focused gains for the one individual or group; it does create far-reaching and long lasting is what this book is all about. According to the book of Johnson (2007) entitled “Principles of controlled maintenance management” Maintenance management practices and procedures was essential to achieve efficiency and effectiveness of the maintenance operations. Just keeping a place and its equipment sanitary, presentable and operating properly today is a carefully scheduled and well managed operation that is supported by the finest equipment and products Millions of dollars are spent annually in developing and improving maintenance tools and materials; this, in turn, saves many more millions of dollars in the investment.
According to Wei and Xu, to their study “Obstacles to innovation management in SMEs” at Högskolan University. The results are contradictory to some earlier research in the area and in line with other. This implies that the characteristics and relationship of SMEs credit risk and internationalization changes over time and/or differs between countries, perhaps even between regions within national borders. For example we arrived at the conclusion that our basic model indicates a positive relationship between internationalization and credit risk, in line with both Rugman (2009) and Caves (2007). The analysis shows no significant difference in the firm’s capital structure depending on the internationalization, although younger companies tended to have a higher level of internationalization. This finding is contradictory to the research conducted by Burgman (2009) and the reports carried out by the European Commission whose report reaches the conclusion that older firms had a higher level of international exposure. According to Esther Nzungwa Leander to their study, “Cultural labour management in Finland: Multicultural Working environment in Riihimäki Würth Ltd., Finland; MBA-thesis in marketing” is that cultural differences may not affect unskilled working environment (like the researched warehouse operating Würth Ltd. company), as long as all the employees are treated equally. Carrying out of given duties in unskilled working place is the same in a warehouse company despite of the country of origin.
The Würth Ltd. unskilled labour respondents provided evidence that equal salary, treatment, sharing of duties and other benefits could be the key to successful multicultural working environment, marketing and management. It creates harmony, kindness and friendliness in the air that I too, witnessed while walking around the building before the interview. Learning the native or working language is very important to enable communication and career progress even in Würth’s unskilled warehouse multicultural working environment, marketing and management. Researched company has 126 employees in 379 departments of which 28 are migrants from Vietnam, Morocco, Kosovo, Germany, Russia, Estonia, Egypt, Kuwait, Bangladesh, Japan and Philippines. It hired the first foreign employee in 1990 but none of foreign employees has ever been promoted. This could be a multicultural working environment dark side or failure. Multicultural marketing in Finland might not be the right strategy or solution for ambitious foreigners who are interested and looking for quick career advancements or career progress if this is the case in most of the Finnish multicultural working places.
Sanchez, defines that many Filipino businesspersons hate competition of any kind. Because they believed that competition is always a bad omen.9 Competition brings many benefits in business such as the lowering of retail prices because you and competitors common suppliers can now offer lower wholesale prices due to lower delivery costs to the area.10 The small – scale entrepreneur, need to borrow follows from the need to grow. The more resources one commands, the most stable and viable an enterprise becomes. New products are made; more workers are employed; new market is tapped; new business prospects are opened and industrial development moves a step ahead.11 People go into business for a variety of reasons.
They may go into business a owners and employers or as employee. The decision to go into business and not into some other activity as the priesthood or medicine or law, may be result of conscious thought and deliberate preparation over period of years. Or it may be due to the fact that a person finds no easier or more satisfactory way of earning a living. Whether a person goes into business as an employer or an employee, he faces the hazards of loss and other problems inherent in the conduct of business. Both owner and employee need essentially the same personal characteristics that are required to succeed. Both also enjoy certain values which are derived when people go into business. According to Young and Pagoso (2010) in their book entitled “Principles of Marketing” Marketing is the process by which demand structure for products and services is anticipated and uncharged and Agree through competition promotion change and physical distribution of such goods and services”. In the Philippines, intermediate market, goods flow from the producers/manufacturers to the retailers. (3) The relationship between the retailer and manufacturer involves a two-way traffic, with the supply chain on one side and product management on the other.
Retailers have the tendency to get involved in the supply chain for various reasons: (1) to ensure that the products are delivered to the shops on time and are of desirable quality, (2) to reduce the costs incurred when products are stocked in the retailer’s warehouses, and (3) to maintain a reputation of exclusivity where the manufacturer will not supply to other retailers. If retailers tend to get involved in the supply chain management, the manufacturers also have reasons to exert particular control over some aspects of retailing. According to Regalado, 2007 case study about “Marketing Practitioners” there are broad scope of strategic planning encompasses: all the company offers all the products/services; All the markets serve; both environmental snd internal variables; production, research finance, and other organizational elements needed for success strategic planning looks beyond the immediate circumstances, in the process clarifying where Regalado want to be in the future.
This strategic perspective can be contrasted to the tactical level and operational planning. According to Young and Pagoso (2010) in their study entitled “Principles Of Marketing“,that strategy and brand value and how these can be portrayed and communicated in difficult markets and challenging situations to restore reputation and gain competitive advantage. In today’s competitive and fast changing world the importance of having a clear strategy that not only delivers the desired business results and shareholder returns but also fulfills the brand promise and enhances corporate reputation is essential. Strategically investing in the brand and delivering on what you promise is, therefore, necessary as this will ultimately manifest itself in how the company is viewed externally which in turn will contribute to stakeholder perception over time.
In the current global and complex environment where business knows no borders, consumers are more demanding, communication is instant and the benefits of years of hard work can be lost practically overnight, it is necessary to have the right strategy in place. This must have the required flexibility to respond to unexpected circumstances and do what is necessary to retain brand value and sustain corporate reputation. Companies are coming under increasing scrutiny to be more transparent in their dealings and behave ethically and how they react will reflect in their corporate image. A strategic approach is, therefore, called for that proactively manages corporate identity. This will inevitably involve appropriate and effective communication.
On 1991, Josephine Tuble of the University of Santo Tomas Graduate School made a study that concerns the productivity and job satisfaction of workers in construction company in Metro Manila. These results to productivity level that was rated on the whole as “good” due to the following dimensions: quantity of work, quality of work, supervision required, attendance, and conservation. Also, the respondents of this study were neither satisfied nor dissatisfied because of low ratings made on promotion and pay aspects. In connection with this, the level of productivity is correlated with job satisfaction with regards to the nature of work, supervision, co-workers relationship and pay aspects. Moreover, sponsored by the American Studies Association of the Phils. – Baguio Cordillera Chapter, Antonia Corinthia Naz accomplished a study regarding the factors that influences the labor Productivity of miners in Benguet.
With this, it has been found that the productivity level vary according to mining methods and was significantly affected by technical factors followed by economic factors and personal factors. Major problems on labor productivity are: the need for more involvement in decision-making; thorough discussion on miners’ concerns; that the company adopts a variety of training methods; the need to be informed of the policies; the desire of workers for management to be more sensitive and responsive to workers’ concerns and the necessity for more and better quality of tools and equipment for underground work. Synthesis and Relevance to the present Study
The gathered information, theories statements were taken from different books of management business small retailers, Law and Case studies. As of the present time there were no studies published yet that are concerning with the competitiveness of Shoe Retail Business that can be directly related to the subject and the research problem. Writings of the prominent authors of management. Were primarily used this is to determine the relationship, relevance and also the credibility of the present findings. Other authors and websites were able to constitute relevant data for this research. Local figures of economy and business were also able to make contributions.
The gathered secondary data which are the studies and literature from local and foreign sources will serve as a basis on the analysis of data in this research study. The theories and statements cited in this chapter will support the data result of this study.
This chapter discusses the methods and procedures used in this study. This includes the research design used, instruments used, validation of instrument used, data gathering procedure, respondents of the study, and statistical treatment of data. Research Design
With the end view of the competitive advantages of Shoe Retail Stores, the researcher thought it proper and appropriate to use the descriptive type of research. Descriptive research is defined by best in the following ways: descriptive researches describes and interpret “what is”, it is concern with the conditions of relationships that exists practices that prevail beliefs processes that are going on, Effects that are being felt or trends that are developing.
The process of descriptive research goes beyond more gathering and tabulation of data. It involves an element of interpretation of meaning of significance of what is described. Thus, description often combines with comparison and contrast involving measurement, classification interpretations.
It is descriptive because it describes the present competitive advantages of Shoe Retail Stores in Target Mall and Balibago Commercial Complex as assessed by its customers.
The instrument used was a researcher-made. All parts of the questionnaire were constructed by the researcher. It was composed of three variables namely: Quality, Design and Price. Questionnaire- was the main tool used to gather the needed data and information for this study.
Data Gathering Procedure
The survey covered the Shoe Retail Stores in Target Mall and Balibago Commercial Complex in the City of Santa Rosa. And the researchers personally distributed and retrieve the survey questionnaires in the area. And the researchers personally tabulated through statistical treatment.
Description of the Respondents
The profile of the respondents in terms of Gender
GENDER| FEMALE| MALE|
| f| %| f| %|
N= 100| 62| 62%| 38| 38%|
Table 1 shows the profile of the respondents in terms of Gender. It reveals that out of 100 respondents, there were 62 or 62% female and 38 or 38% male respondents. Table 2
The profile of the respondents in terms of Age
AGE| 20 BELOW| 21-25| 26-30| 31-35| 36 ABOVE|
N=100| f| %| f| %| f| %| f| %| f| %|
| 34| 34%| 28| 28%| 16| 16%| 13| 13%| 9| 9%|
Table 3 shows the profile of the respondents in terms of Age. It reveals that out of 100 respondents, there were 34 of 20 below ages; followed by, 28 of ages 21-25; Next is, 16 of ages 26-30; then is 13 of ages 31-35 and 9of 36ages above of respondents. Population and Sample Size
The researcher gather information through the use of questionnaire distributed to the customers that directly buying shoes at the area in the time and day we distribute questionnaires. The respondents are 100 through Accidental sampling that drawn from that part of the population which is close to hand. A sample population selected because it is readily available and convenient. Statistical Treatment of Data
Simple statistical measures were employed in this study after the data were gathered through the questionnaires. Data were tallied, tabulated, analyze and interpret. The statistical tool used in this study is the following:
1. Simple Frequency Counts- this tool facilitates the tallying and counting of frequencies falling under each item or category. P=f/N*100
2. Percentage- the percentage was used to compare the proportion of frequencies of responses of the total number of responses. This was reinforcing by ranking to the note the order of importance of an item in the questionnaire. The formula is:
f= frequency of the observation under study
N= Total number of respondents
P= Percentage Value
3. The weighted arithmetic mean also used in this study.
The formula is:
Weighted mean= ∑ wf _______
Where: ∑ wf= sum of weighted frequencies
F= total frequency
4. Arbitrary Scale- The degree of their responses to the variables was done by assigning verbal interpretation to the given weights.
Numerical Value Verbal Interpretation 4.21-5.00 Strongly Agree 3.41-4.20Agree
2.61-3.40 Moderately Agree 1.81-2.60 Disagree 1.00-1.80 Strongly Disagree 5. Chi-square test it is to determine the tallies or counts of categorical responses between two (or more) independent groups. Formula:
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
This chapter presents the tabulated, analyzed and interprets the data based on the questionnaires administered to the competitive advantages of shoe
retail stores n Target Mall and Balibago Commercial Complex. Table 3
The profile of the respondents in terms of Civil Status
CIVIL STATUS| SINGLE| MARRIED|
| f| %| f| %|
N= 100| 60| 60%| 40| 40%|
Table 3 shows the profile of the respondents in terms of Civil Status. It reveals that out of 100 respondents, there were 60 or 60% single and 40 or 40% married respondents
The competitive advantages of shoe retail stores of Target Mall and Balibago Commercial Complex in terms of Quality QUALITYN= 100| TARGET MALL| BALIBAGO COMMERCIAL COMPLEX| | SingleN=60| MarriedN=40| SingleN=60| MarriedN=40|
| -X| VI| -X| VI| -X| VI| -X| VI|
1.Durable| 3.47| Agree| 3.28| ModeratelyAgree| 3.67| Agree| 3.93| Agree| 2.Usable| 3.57| Agree| 3.77| Agree| 3.32| ModeratelyAgree| 3.50| Agree| 3.Malleable| 3.68| Agree| 3.28| ModeratelyAgree| 3.47| Agree| 3.45| Agree| 4.Stable| 3.62| Agree| 3.63| Agree| 3.50| Agree| 3.68| Agree| 5.Flexible| 3.47| Agree| 4.00| Agree| 3.57| Agree| 3.65| Agree| 6.Breathable| 3.70| Agree| 3.23| ModeratelyAgree| 3.65| Agree| 3.28| ModeratelyAgree| 7.Frangible| 3.38| ModeratelyAgree| 3.46| Agree| 3.75| Agree| 3.43| Agree| 8.Comfortable| 3.65| Agree| 3.16| ModeratelyAgree| 3.67| Agree| 4.13| Agree| 9.Inferiority| 3.32| ModeratelyAgree| 3.56| Agree| 3.52| Agree| 3.85| Agree| 10.Thickness| 3.53| Agree| 3.70| Agree| 3.42| Agree| 3.63| Agree| General weighted mean| 35.39(3.54)| Agree| 35.05(3.51)| Agree| 35.54(3.55)| Agree| 36.53(3.65)| Agree|
It reveals that single respondents from Target Mall “Agreed’ that shoes were Breathable, Malleable, Stable, Usable, Thickness, Durable, Flexible, Frangible, Inferiority and Comfortable. With a weighted mean of 3.70, 3.68,
3.62, 3.57, 3.53, 3.47, 3.47, 3.38, 3.32 and 3.05 respectively. In this connection, married respondents from Target Mall “Agreed” that shoes were Flexible, Usable, Thickness, Stable, Inferiority, Frangible, Durable, Malleable, Breathable and Comfortable. With a weighted mean of 4.00, 3.77, 3.70, 3.63, 3.56, 3.46, 3.28, 3.28, 3.23 and 3.16 respectively. While Balibago Commercial Complex single respondents agreed that shoes were Frangible, Durable, Comfortable, Breathable, Flexible, Inferiority, Stable, Malleable, Thickness and Usable. With a weighted mean of 3.75, 3.62, 3.67, 3.65, 3.57, 3.52, 3.50, 3.47, 3.42 and 3.32 respectively. Furthermore, Balibago Commercial Complex married respondents “Agreed” that shoes were Comfortable, Durable, Inferiority, Stable, Flexible, Thickness, Usable, Malleable Frangible and Breathable. With a weighted mean of 4.13, 3.93, 3.85, 3.68, 3.65, 3.63, 3.50, 3.45, 3.43 and 3.28 respectively. Table 5
The competitive advantages of shoe retail stores of Target Mall and Balibago Commercial Complex in terms of Design DESIGNN= 100| TARGET MALL| BALIBAGO COMMERCIAL COMPLEX|
| SingleN=60| MarriedN=40| SingleN=60| MarriedN=40|
| -X| VI| -X| VI| -X| VI| -X| VI|
1.Noticeable| 3.62| Agree| 4.00| Agree| 3.28| ModeratelyAgree| 3.63| Agree| 2.Stunning| 3.53| Agree| 3.56| Agree| 3.43| Agree| 3.48| Agree| 3.Presentable| 3.48| Agree| 3.58| Agree| 3.43| Agree| 2.58| Disagree| 4.Newly Hip| 3.50| Agree| 3.46| Agree| 3.57| Agree| 3.60| Agree| 5.Unique| 3.42| Agree| 3.75| Agree| 3.62| Agree| 3.63| Agree| 6.Popularly Brand| 3.25| ModeratelyAgree| 3.63| Agree| 3.52| Agree| 3.88| Agree| 7.Exceptionable| 3.30| ModeratelyAgree| 3.50| Agree| 3.68| Agree| 3.80| Agree| 8.Simple| 3.57| Agree| 3.73| Agree| 3.23| ModeratelyAgree| 3.60| Agree| 9.Common/Ordinary| 3.52| Agree| 3.50| Agree| 3.57| Agree| 4.40| StronglyAgree| 10.Favorable| 3.60| Agree| 3.85| Agree| 3.50| Agree| 3.90| Agree| General weighted mean| 34.79(3.48)| Agree| 36.56(3.66)| Agree| 34.83(3.48)| Agree| 36.50(3.65)| Agree|
It reveals that single respondents from Target Mall “Agreed’ that shoes were Noticeable, Favorable, Simple, Stunning, Common/Ordinary, Newly hip, Presentable, Unique, Exceptionable, Popularly brand. With a weighted mean of 3.62, 3.60, 3.57, 3.53, 3.52, 3.50, 3.48, 3.42, 3.30, 3.25 respectively. While the Married respondents from Target Mall “Agreed” that shoes were Noticeable, Favorable, Unique, Simple, Popularly brand, Presentable, Stunning, Common/Ordinary, Exceptionable and Newly hip. With a weighted mean of 4.00, 3.85, 3.75, 3.73, 3.63, 3.58, 3.56, 3.50, 3.50 and 3.46 respectively. In this connection, Balibago Commercial Complex Single respondents agreed that shoes were Exceptionable, Unique, Common/Ordinary, Newly hip, Popularly brand, Favorable, Presentable, Stunning, Noticeable and Simple. With a weighted mean of 3.68, 3.62, 3.57, 3.57, 3.52, 3.50, 3.43, 3.43, 3.28 and 3.23 respectively. While married respondents agreed that shoes were Common/Ordinary, Favorable, Popularly brand, Exceptionable, Noticeable, Unique, Newly hip, Simple, Presentable and Stunning. With a weighted mean of 4.40, 3.90, 3.88, 3.80, 3.63, 3.63, 3.60, 3.60, 3.58 and 2.58 respectively.
The competitive advantages of shoe retail stores of Target Malland Balibago Commercial Complex in terms of Price PRICEN= 100| TARGET MALL| BALIBAGO COMMERCIAL COMPLEX|
| SingleN=60| MarriedN=40| SingleN=60| MarriedN=40|
| -X| VI| -X| VI| -X| VI| -X| VI|
1.Affordable| 3.63| Agree| 3.85| Agree| 3.70| Agree| 3.90| Agree| 2.Low| 3.35| ModeratelyAgree| 3.65| Agree| 3.50| Agree| 3.95| Agree| 3.Discountable| 3.42| Agree| 3.73| Agree| 3.48| Agree| 3.83| Agree| 4.Standard| 3.65| Agree| 3.80| Agree| 3.68| Agree| 3.95| Agree| 5.Invariable| 3.55| Agree| 3.48| Agree| 3.53| Agree| 3.70| Agree| 6.Equality| 3.58| Agree| 3.50| Agree| 3.60| Agree| 3.83| Agree| 7.Elastic| 3.53| Agree| 3.90| Agree| 3.40| Agree| 4.20| Agree| 8.Zone pricing| 3.48| Agree| 3.63| Agree| 3.52| Agree| 3.73| Agree| 9.Acceptable| 3.42| Agree| 3.50| Agree| 3.68| Agree| 4.05| Agree| 10.Visible| 3.50| Agree| 3.85| Agree| 3.27| ModeratelyAgree| 3.95| Agree| General weighted mean| 35.11(3.51)| Agree| 36.89(3.69)| Agree| 35.36(3.54)| Agree| 39.09(3.91)| Agree|
It reveals that single respondents from Target Mall “Agreed’ that shoes were Standard, Affordable, Equality, Invariable, Elastic, Visible, Zone pricing, Acceptable, Discountable and Low. With a weighted mean of 3.65, 3.63, 3.58, 3.55, 3.53, 3.50, 3.48, 3.42, 3.42 and 3.35 respectively. While Married respondents from Target Mall “Agreed” that shoes were, Elastic, Affordable, Visible, Standard, Discountable, Low, Zone pricing, Acceptable, Equality and Invariable. With a weighted mean of 3.90, 3.85, 3.85, 3.80, 3.73, 3.65, 3.62, 3.50, 3.50 and 3.48. In this regard, Balibago Commercial Complex single respondents “Agreed” that shoes were Affordable, Acceptable, Standard, Equality, Invariable, Zone pricing, Low, Discountable, Elastic and Visible. With a weighted mean of 3.70, 3.68, 3.68, 3.60, 3.53, 3.52, 3.50, 3.48, 3.40 and 3.27 respectively. While married respondents “Agreed” that shoes were Elastic, Acceptable, Low, Standard, Visible, Affordable, Discountable, Equality, Zone pricing and Invariable. With a weighted mean of 4.20, 4.05, 3.95, 3.95, 3.95, 3.90, 3.83, 3.83, 3.70 respectively.
The significant difference between the competitive advantages of shoe retail stores in Target Mall and Balibago Commercial Complex, when they grouped according to Civil Status | X ²| df| Probability level|
Difference between the competitive advantages of shoe retail stores in Target Mall and Balibago Commercial Complex, when they grouped according to Civil Status.| 0| 1| 0.5|
Table 7 shows that there is no significance difference between the competitive advantages of shoe retail stores in Target Mall and Balibago Commercial Complex when they are grouped according to civil status as revealed by the computed chi-square X ² 0 < 0.5. We accept the hypothesis that we fail to reject the Ho otherwise.
Ho: There is a no significant difference between the competitive advantages of shoe retailer Stores in Target Mall and Balibago Commercial Complex, when they grouped according to civil status. Ha: There is a significant difference between the competitive advantages of shoe retailer Stores in Target Mall and Balibago Commercial Complex, when they grouped according to civil status. Test Statistics:
Decision Rule: Reject Ho if X ² > (0.5), if < fail to reject Ho otherwise. Computation:
X ² = 0
Decision: Since = X ² = 0 is < 0.5, we accept Ho.
Conclusion: At X ² = 0 < 0.5, we have enough confidence to conclude that there is no significant difference between Single and Married respondents. Thus, we would fail to reject the null hypothesis that there is a significant difference between the competitive advantages of shoe retailer Stores in Target Mall and Balibago Commercial Complex, when they grouped according to civil status. CHAPTER V
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This study was conducted to determine the competitive advantages of Shoe Retail Stores. Specific points of concerns are the customers of Shoe retail stores as regards to Quality, Design and Price.
The researcher though proper and appropriate to use the descriptive type of research where it can concerned with conditions of relationships that exists practices that prevail, beliefs, processes that are going on, effects that are being felt or trend that are developing.
The questionnaire was the main tool used to gather the needed dat6a and information for this study. Statistical measures were employed in this study after the data were gathered through questionnaires. Data were tallied, tabulated, analyze and interpret. The statistical used in this study are simple frequency counts, percentage, and arbitrary scale. With all these statistical tools, answers to the following questions were sought. Findings
1. On the profile of respondents in terms of Gender
It reveals that out of 100 respondents, there were 62 female and 38 male respondents. 2. On the profile of respondents in terms of Civil Status It reveals that out of 100 respondents, there were 60 single and 40 married respondents.
3. On the profile of respondents in terms of Age
It reveals that out of 100 respondents, there were 34 of 20 below ages; followed by, 28 of ages 21-25; Next is, 16 of ages 26-30; then is 13 of ages 31-35 and 9 of 36ages above of respondents 4. The competitive advantages of shoe retail stores in Target Mall and Balibago Commercial Complex in terms of Quality It reveals that single respondents in Target Mall got “Agree” rating with a general weighted mean of 3.54, while Married respondents got “Agree” rating also. And single respondents in Balibago Commercial Complex got “Agree” rating with a general weighted mean of 3.55, while Married respondents got “Agree” rating also.
5. The competitive advantages of shoe retail stores in Balibago Commercial Complex in terms of Designs It reveals that single respondents in Target Mall got “Agree” rating with a general weighted mean of 3.48, while Married respondents got “Agree” rating also. And single respondents in Balibago Commercial Complex got “Agree” rating with a general weighted mean of 3.48, while Married respondents got “Agree” rating also.
6. The competitive advantages of shoe retail stores in Balibago Commercial Complex in terms of Price It reveals that single respondents in Target Mall got “Agree” rating with a general weighted mean of 3.51, while Married respondents got “Agree” rating also. And single respondents in Balibago Commercial Complex got “Agree” rating with a general weighted mean of 3.54, while Married respondents got “Agree” rating also. 7. On the significant difference between the competitive advantages of shoe retail stores in Target Mall and Balibago Commercial Complex, when they grouped according to Civil Status It reveals that there is no significance difference between the competitive advantages of shoe retail stores in Target Mall and Balibago Commercial Complex when they are grouped according to civil status as revealed by the computed chi-square X ² 0 < 0.5. We accept the hypothesis that we fail to reject the Ho otherwise.
In the light of the above findings, the following conclusions can be made.
1. On the profile of the respondents
That, most of the respondents were, Female, Single and ages 20 and below. 2. The competitive advantages of shoe retail stores in Target Mall and Balibago Commercial Complex in terms of Quality That, most of the single and married respondents in agreed in Balibago Commercial Complex 3. The competitive advantages of shoe retail stores in Balibago Commercial Complex in terms of Designs That, Single respondents agreed on both Target Mall and Balibago Commercial Complex, and married respondents agreed on Target Mall. 4. The competitive advantages of shoe retail stores in Balibago Commercial Complex in terms of Price That, Single and married respondents got agreed on Balibago Commercial Complex 5. On the significant difference between the responses of the respondents in terms of competitive advantages of shoe retailer Stores in Target Mall and Balibago Commercial Complex, when they grouped according to civil status That, there is no significance difference between the responses of the respondents in terms of competitive advantages of shoe retail stores in Target Mall and Balibago Commercial Complex when they are grouped according to civil status.
1. The competitive advantages of Shoe Retail Stores in Target Mall and Balibago Commercial Complex in terms of Quality Shoe Retail Stores at Target Mall should improve the quality of their product by choosing appropriate manufacturer that can produce well-made and high-quality shoes. It should measure such as the enjoyment the customer will get from the product. It is important that the product is changed as necessary to bring it up to date and prevent it from being overtaken by competitors.
2. The competitive advantages of Shoe Retail Stores in Target Mall and Balibago Commercial Complex in terms of Design Customers are slightly satisfied with the design that Target Mall can offer. And Balibago Commercial Complex should improve their shoe designs by browsing latest and newly hip style so that satisfied customers are likely to recommend the products.
3. The competitive advantages of Shoe Retail Stores in Target Mall and Balibago Commercial Complex in terms of Price Since these two is the most appropriate shopping point because of its affordable price, improvements should be further from the equivalent quality. It is very important that the correct price is charged for a product. If the price is too high consumers will avoid the product, as they will believe it to be too expensive yet if the product is priced too low they may believe that there is something wrong with the product for it to be so cheap.
List of Appendices
Appendix A Cover Letter
Appendix B Certification
Appendix C Sample Questionnaire
Appendix D Sample Computation of Chi-Square (x2) Test
Appendix E Matrix of the Study
Appendix F Curriculum Vitae
POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES
SANTA ROSA CAMPUS
City of Santa Rosa, Laguna
I Rowena Dichoso is hereby certify that the group of Cyndie Katigbak , John Ryan Lopez, Rizza Ann Salen, Rica Joy Sasa and Ryan Villegas who conducted a research entitled “The Competitive Advantages of shoe retailer stores in Target Mall and Balibago Commercial Complex Complex” have consulted me as their Statistician.
___________________________ Rowena Dichoso
The Competitive Advantage of Shoe Retail Stores in Target Mall and Balibago
GENDER: Female ( ) Male ( )
20 Below( )
21-25( ) CIVIL STATUS: 26-36( ) Single( ) 31-35( ) Married( ) 36 Above( )
Instruction: Choose the best rating that corresponds to your answer by putting a check mark () in the box on the right side of the statement.
5- Strongly Agree| 4- Agree| 3-ModeratelyAgree| 2- Disagree| 1- Strongly Disagree|
TARGET MALL BALIBAGO COMMERCIAL COMPLEX QUALITY| 5| 4| 3| 2| 1| | 5| 4| 3| 2| 1|
1.Durable(matibay at pangmatagalan)| | | | | | | | | | | | 2.Usable(magagamit kahit saan)| | | | | | | | | | | | 3.Malleable(malambot)| | | | | | | | | | | |
4.Stable(magaandalhin)| | | | | | | | | | | |
5.Flexible(nababaluktot)| | | | | | | | | | | | 6.Breathable(hindi masikip sa paa)| | | | | | | | | | | | 7.Fragible(marupok)| | | | | | | | | | | |
8.Comfortable(komportable)| | | | | | | | | | | | 9.Inferiority(mababangklase)| | | | | | | | | | | | 10.Thickness(makapal at masinsin)| | | | | | | | | | | |
TARGET MALL BALIBAGO COMMERCIAL COMPLEX
DESIGN| 5| 4| 3| 2| 1| | 5| 4| 3| 2| 1|
1.Noticeable(kapansin-pansin)| | | | | | | | | | | | 2.Stunning(napakaganda)| | | | | | | | | | | |
3.Presentable(kaakit-akit sa paningin)| | | | | | | | | | | | 4.Newly hip and style(sunod sa uso)| | | | | | | | | | | | 5.Unique(Walang katulad)| | | | | | | | | | | | 6.Popularly brand(kilala at tanyag)| | | | | | | | | | | | 7.Exeptionable(kakaiba sa lahat)| | | | | | | | | | | | 8.Simple(payak)| | | | | | | | | | | |
9Common/Ordinary(karaniwan)| | | | | | | | | | | | 10.Favorable(gusto ng karamihan)| | | | | | | | | | | |
TARGET MALL BALIBAGO COMMERCIAL COMPLEX PRICE| 5| 4| 3| 2| 1| | 5| 4| 3| 2| 1|
1.Affortable(abot-kaya)| | | | | | | | | | | |
2.Low(mura)| | | | | | | | | | | |
3.Discountable(pwedeng tawaran)| | | | | | | | | | | | 4.Standard(May pamantayan ang halaga)| | | | | | | | | | | | 5.Invariable(hindi nagbabago)| | | | | | | | | | | | 6.Equality(pare-pareho/pantay-pantay)| | | | | | | | | | | | 7.Elastic(pabago-bago)| | | | | | | | | | | |
8.Zone Pricing(ang presyo ay depende kung saan nanggaling/nagmula ang produkto)| | | | | | | | | | | | 9.Acceptable(katanggap-tanggap)| | | | | | | | | | | | 10.Visible(nakikita ang presyo)| | | | | | | | | | | |
Sample Computation of Chi- Square X ² Test
1. Ho: There is a no significant difference between the competitive advantages of shoe retailer Stores in Target Mall and Balibago Commercial Complex, when they grouped according to civil status. Ha: There is a significant difference between the competitive advantages of shoe retailer Stores in Target Mall and Balibago Commercial Complex, when they grouped according to civil status. 2. Expected Frequencies
E= (row total) (column total)
Observed| Expected| (O-E)| (O-E) ²| (O-E) ²/E|
60| 60| 0| 0| 0|
60| 60| 0| 0| 0|
40| 40| 0| 0| 0|
40| 40| 0| 0| 0|
X ² = 0
Probability Level: 1.000
Degrees of freedom: 1
Df = n-1 (where n is the no. of categories)
E = (60+60) (60+40)/200=60
E = (60+60) (60+40)/200=60
E = (60+40) (40+40)/200=40
E = (60+40) (40+40)/200=40
[ 2 ]. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Retail
[ 3 ]. Pagoso. “Introductory Microeconomics” 2006.
[ 4 ]. Paul Sammuelson. “Consumer Behavior” 2000.
[ 5 ]. Leano. “Fundamentals of Microeconomics” 2008.
[ 6 ]. Pagoso. “Introductory Microeconomics” 2006.
[ 7 ]. Whittington,“What is Strategy – and does it matter”. 2006 [ 8 ]. Satterwaite, “Going shopping”. 2005
[ 9 ]. Nigel Hill, Handbook of customer satisfaction and Loyalty measurement, 1996, p.7 [ 10 ]. Porter Whittington, “shopping competitions”. 1999 [ 11 ]. Armstrong and Kotler, Marketing: an intoduction, 2005,p.17 [ 12 ]. Murell, “Empowering employees” 2005.
[ 13 ]. Johnson, “Principles of controlled maintenance management” 2007. [ 14 ]. Max Ahlgren andJacob Goldmann. “The Internationalization of Swedish SMEs: how does internationalization affect individual firm’s capital and credit risk structure?” 2012. http://www.essays.se/essay/955a4118fa/
[ 15 ]. Esther Nzungwa Leander . “Cultural labour management in Finland: Multicultural Working environment in Riihimäki Würth Ltd., Finland; MBA-thesis in marketing”. 2010. [ 16 ]. Young and Pagoso, “Principles of Marketing”. 2010 [ 17 ]. In the Philippine setting, manufacturers usually have a distributor and do not directly deal with the retailers. [ 18 ]. Regalado, “Marketing Practitioners”. 2007
[ 19 ]. Young and Pagoso, “Principles of Marketing” 2010 [ 20 ]. Tuble, Josephine. “Productivity and Job satisfaction of workers in construction company in Metro Manila” 1991.
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TOPICS IN THIS DOCUMENT
Arithmetic mean, Average, Department store, Mean, Retailing, Shopping mall, Weight function, Weighted mean
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