This report seeks to help find out about all the different types of therapies in which could be used within ‘The Zone’. These therapies will be used to help reduce some of the problems within the local area, and due to the fact that ‘The Zone’ is located within a deprived area I will be researching about therapies of which could help individuals with substance misuse, dysfunctional family issues, domestic violence and also self-harm. In order to do this I have three case studies in which I will use to help my research.
The behaviourist approach
This approach is shown to be very useful when it comes to explaining an individual’s learned behaviour, this is due to the fact that we can then trace back to where the behaviour may have come. This can be done with the concepts of association or even reinforcement, this can be otherwise known as classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Individuals may change their behaviours due to certain aspects, for example; a young boy may have a fear of dogs and because of this they may not want to go to school or go and play out in the park because they may fear that they will encounter a dog. Another example of this would be if an old woman had a fear of going out (agoraphobia), and due to the fact that this fear dominates her life she gets depression.
Thanks to classical conditioning an individual’s behaviour can be changed so that they can then overcome their phobia. Classical conditioning is often used to help people overcome their phobias and this is done through systematic desensitisation. Systematic desensitisation is very similar to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and this is due to the fact that this method creates a ‘hierarchy of fear’. In order to create a hierarchy of fear the individual must write down a list of all aspects they are scared of which associate with said fear, an example of this would be an individual having a fear of hospitals. If this is the case then the hierarchy of fear will look something like; Most feared the procedure itself.
Smells associated with the hospital
People in green gowns
Hospital equipment and machinery
Taking a lift to a ward
Walking into the building
Driving to the building
Least fearedReceiving an appointment card
This procedure then allows the individual to reach a state of deep relaxation, this is due to the fact that each fear (starting from the least feared) will be tackled until the individual feels calm and relaxed when dealing with that situation. For example the individual will first concentrate on overcoming the fear of receiving an appointment card, this will be done through sending letters to the individual with appointment cards in until they feel in a calm and relaxed state. Once this stage has been tackled they will move onto the next stage of their phobia and so on. Systematic desensitisation is a method used to help an individual replace their anxiety with relaxation, but however for most individuals this will take more than one attempt.
Classical conditioning can also be used as a treatment for many other aspects other than phobias, for example it can be used for people who have alcohol problems. This can be used by giving the individual some alcohol but however putting a drug in it that has a series of unpleasant physiological effects along with vomiting and nausea. This them allows the individual to associate alcohol with unpleasantness. As well as changing behaviour it is also possible to shape behaviours and this can be done through operant conditioning. Operant conditioning is used so that people gain more helpful behaviours and eliminate the unhelpful or bad behaviours. By using positive reinforcement and punishment and individuals behaviour can be shaped, this can also be known as behaviour modification.
Shaping behaviour can also be used on autistic children, this is where the individual will get a reward for something they have done correctly. An example of this would be if an autistic child made eye contact then they would be rewarded, this reward would then be something like a sweet so that the child would then associate making eye contact with positivity. This procedure will then be repeated until the child makes eye contact naturally. The Psychodynamic approach
This approach believes that a lot of people’s behaviour is driven by unconscious forces. Due to this fact it is important to understand that we need recognise that question and answers techniques will not always allow us to understand some individual’s behaviours. One of the main reasons as to why there will be times we cannot understand some individual’s behaviours is because the individual themselves may not know what is troubling them. It is then important that we interpret behaviour as an assumption that it is related to something within the unconscious. If an individual is anxious then they may begin to think about what their fears are about certain events that have occurred or are going to occur, they may also start to think about what they have done or what they are going to do and also they may start to wonder if the world is safe or not. In order for the brain to come with anxiety it has come up with a variety of strategies. The first strategy is denial, this strategy is otherwise known as the ostrich approach due to the fact that many individuals who are in denial will bury their heads and pretend that of which makes them anxious does not and has never existed. The Humanistic approach
A counselling method known as unconditional positive regard was developed by a man known as Carl Rodgers, this method is used by a counsellor during a session so that the individual then has a more positive sense of themselves. This method means that the counsellor must then unconditionally support and validate the individual’s experiences, beliefs and emotions. They must then do this without judging whether they are good or bad. This method then allows the individual to accept who they are and have self-worth. Throughout time the individual may let go of unrealistic expectations that are associated with their ideal self or the ideal self may start to dissolve as the actual self moves closer. One of the main factors for this approach is empathy, this is due to the fact that empathy means listening to an individual very closely to the individual an put ourselves in their shoes. This is done so that we can understand their emotions and also respect them for who they are.
However empathy is not always an easy skill especially when we come across an individual who feels bad about a problem of which could be easily dismissed by ourselves. However despite this fact we will be able to demonstrate empathy if we can respect the individual and then understand that the problem of which they are facing is of great importance to them. Just like empathy it is important to apply understanding when using this approach and this is due to the fact that Carl Rodgers does not only refer to understanding at an intellectual level but he also talks about empathetic understanding, empathetic understanding is where you use your own emotions and sensitivity so that you can be of better help to the individual. When it comes to helping others there have been many times where we have allowed our own personal experiences and judgements to get in the way of how we relate to other individuals. Because of this it is important that when helping an individual we ask them questions of which will break their problem down into smaller components, this then allows the individual to deal with their problem piece by piece. Another aspect of the humanistic approach is active listening.
This type of listening is not like having a normal conversation, this is due to the fact that when we have a conversation with an individual then we will wait for the other person to finish what they are saying so that we can then have our say, but however active listening is where you listen to what the emotions and meanings are behind the other individuals words. During active listening not only do we pay attention to what they are saying but we will also watch their body language and their facial expressions. It is then important to use empathetic understanding and not judge the individual on what they are saying. When helping individuals it is important to give them respect, but however this can sometimes be quite difficult to do. In some cases we may become judgemental due to the fact that we cannot identify with the other individual. Because of this it is a major barrier when it comes to helping someone. What therapies could be used in ‘The Zone’
There are many therapies in which could be used within ‘The Zone’ that could help individuals with all different mental health problems. I have been asked by my supervisor to discuss these different therapies and also the approaches that are related to them 1.Skye – The Behaviourist Approach & The Humanistic Approach – Positive reinforcement, Negative reinforcement and Person Centred Care Sky is a young lady at the age of 16, but however she has been to three different foster homes. The reason as to why she has been to so many different foster homes is due to the fact that her foster homes have not been able to manage her aggressive and challenging behaviour. Not only does Skye have a history of moving to different foster homes but she also has a history of alcohol misuse and self-harm. Because of these reasons her current guardians have referred her to ‘The Zone’.
First of all I believe that Skye will benefit from a therapy related to the humanistic approach, this method is counselling. I believe that this will benefit Skye due to the fact that she seems to have a lot of built up anger as she has challenging behaviour and can be aggressive and a counsellor will have unconditional positive regard which means she will not be judged for what she says, does or has done in the past, this then allows her to see a more positive image of herself. Counselling will help Skye get to the bottom of why she acts this way and then when she has gotten to the root cause of why she is aggressive and has challenging behaviour she is then able to step forward and improve upon her behaviour. Not only will counselling help with her aggressive and challenging behaviour but it will also help her get to the root cause of why she self-harms, and then again she is able to progress further in her emotions and improve. I also believe that Skye will benefit from another therapy taken from the behaviourist approach and that is classical conditioning.
This is due to the fact that she has had a history of alcohol misuse in the past and therefore is more likely to abuse alcohol in the future therefore with a classical conditioning therapy she will be less likely to abuse alcohol again. This is due to the fact that when she has classical conditioning there will be a drug of which is put into her alcohol and this drug will make her experience unpleasant episodes and may even cause her to vomit, because of this she will associate these bad experiences with alcohol and will be less likely to misuse it. Another therapy of which I believe will benefit Skye is related to the behaviourist approach. I believe that she needs positive and negative reinforcement and this is due to the fact that I believe that she will improve her behaviour as she will get rewarded when she has behaved correctly but however she will have something taken away from her or not be rewarded when she misbehaves, an example of this would be that if she is behaving appropriately then she will be rewarded with something that she desires such as going out with her friends, but however if she has acted aggressively or misbehaved then she will not be allowed this reward.
This will then change Skye’s behaviour as she will be benefiting when she is behaving and losing out when she is not 2.Lizabeth – The Humanistic Approach, The Psychodynamic Approach and The Behaviourist Approach – Psychotherapy, Operant Conditioning, CBT and Counselling Lizabeth is an only child of which is at the age of 25, she finds it hard to interact with other individuals due to the fact that she has come from a sheltered background and she also lacks the confidence to perform simple tasks. Whilst she was at school Lizabeth was bullied and has been often described as ‘a loner’. She is also not able to function properly on a day to day basis due to the fact that she has obsessive compulsory tendencies and is unable to manage her anxiety levels. First of all I believe that Lizabeth should attend a therapy known as psychotherapy this is due to the fact that she is currently suffering with her anxiety levels.
Not only will psychotherapy help Lizabeth with her anxiety levels but also with her OCD, this is due to the fact that she will attending either a one-to-one session with a trained therapist or she will be attending a group session. The psychotherapy will then allow Lizabeth to discuss her feelings about herself, her family, her friends and what other issues she may have. If the psychotherapist believes that it is necessary then they will invite other members of Lizabeth’s family to come and join in on a group session. I also believe that Lizabeth will benefit from operant conditioning, this is due to the fact that she was bullied when she was younger and finds it hard to complete simple tasks, therefore she may have trouble socialising. I believe operant conditioning will benefit Lizabeth because operant conditioning can be used on autistic children to help socialise and therefore Lizabeth should be able to respond in a more positive way and also quicker so that she can then socialise normally and interact with people.
I then believe that CBT (cognitive behavioural therapy) will benefit Lizabeth, this is due to the fact that if Lizabeth has CBT then she will be dealing with her current problems instead of just talking about her current issues, this happens by looking at practical ways to improve an individual’s state of mind on a daily basis. I also believe that CBT will benefit Lizabeth as CBT deals with people who have anxiety issues, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder
(PTSD), eating disorders and drug misuse. If Lizabeth attends CBT then she will be seeing a therapist once a week or once every two weeks. Finally I believe that Lizabeth will benefit from counselling due to the fact that counselling sessions help people who have anxiety issues and OCD.
I believe that counselling will help her as counsellors help their clients overcome their issues, they will also provide a space in which is safe and can allow their client to talk about and explore their difficult feelings. Although Lizabeth will not get any advice from her counsellor, she will have help to find her own insights in understanding her own problems. 3.Aaron – The Behaviourist Approach – The Psychodynamic Approach – Classical Conditioning (systematic desensitisation) – Psychotherapy Aaron is 34 years old and has a phobia of going to the dentist. He is currently suffering from persistent toothache but however he has not been for a routine check-up since he was at the age of 15. Aaron’s behaviour could be explained through a bad experience he had at the dentist when he was 15, this could either be a bad experience from the dentist itself or from something that may have occurred that day in which he associates the dentist with. I believe that Aaron will benefit from a therapy taken from classical conditioning, this therapy is systematic desensitisation. The main aim for systematic desensitisation is to remove the fear response of a phobia in order to replace that fear with a state of relaxation.
If Aaron was to have systematic desensitisation then he would create a hierarchy of fear, to create this hierarchy of fear Aaron will write a list of what he fears about the dentist from his most feared issue to his least feared issue. Aaron will then tackle each of his smaller fears one at a time until he is in a state of deep relaxation. For example Aaron’s least feared issue about the dentist may be receiving a letter telling him that he is due for an appointment, he will then tackle this fear until he is in a state of deep relaxation. When he reaches this state he will tackle the next issue and so on. Finally I believe that Aaron will benefit from psychotherapy due to the fact that his phobia of the dentist has most likely lead to anxiety issues.
Therefore because of this he will be able to talk about his current issues and therefore will be able to discuss what is causing the issue and then find out a solution to the problem. If Aaron attends psychotherapy then he will be meeting with a trained therapist in either a one-to-one session or group sessions, there he will then be able to look deeper into what is troubling him. Although psychotherapy usually includes talking, Aaron may use other methods in this therapy such as; art, drama, music and movement.