1. What specific prescriptions for social life do these selections contain? Notice in particular those directed toward the weakest members of society. How would you describe the Quran’s view of a good society? These selections contain the idea that society is supposed have people that wish good onto others and speak to others and about others in a kind way. Society is expected to be in constant prayer and also expected to contribute to charity. The Quran sets up basic guidelines for the people on marriage, god, etc. The attitude towards the weak members of society is good; there are plenty of statements regarding being nice to the poor and unfortunate ones. Their view of a good society is one that other nations should adopt because it promotes the good treatment of others.
2. What attitudes toward non-Muslims do these passages suggest? These passages suggest that the Muslims accept non-Muslims and do not commence war against them. The quote, “For oppression is even worse than killing” really exemplifies the attitude of accepting non-Muslims and do not alienate them. Basically, Muslims should still speak kindly to those who do not share the same beliefs.
3. What circumstances surrounding the birth of Islam might help to explain the references in the Quran to fighting and warfare? The birth of Islam started a fairly new religion and warfare was commonplace. So, the Holy Wars might help to explain the references in the Quran to fighting and warfare. For example, if someone were to threaten Islam and Allah’s teachings, then the Quran gives the authority to Muslims to fight in God’s cause. Fighting and warfare was common in this region during this time frame so it was important for the Quran to establish some guidelines for its followers.
4. The sacred texts of all religious traditions provide ample room for conflicting understandings and interpretations. What debates or controversies might arise from these passages? Debates and controversies risen from these passages because of the instruction of not fighting against other religions. The Quran says to accept other beliefs and religions and to live concurrently and peacefully, but some Muslims might not want to have other religions and go against other groups of people.
1. What portrait of Muhammad emerges from this record of his sayings and actions? Based on the record of his sayings and actions, a picture of Muhammad is painted as a man of good-will and faith that gives back to to others. He also does not want war and wants to have dealings peacefully. He is very modest, charitable, and thankful man, who actually cares about others and tries to give back when he can.
2. How do these hadiths reflect or build on the teaching of the Quran in Document 9.1? These hadiths build upon the teaching of the Quran by further elaborating in detail of the more broadly expressed views of the Quran. They give the daily routines to effectively live the correct Muslim life centered on the Quran’s teachings.
3. What religious and social values do these hadiths highlight? Religious and social values are highlighted in these hadiths. On men and women from Document 1 is referred to; these hadiths describe how men should act around women (not even allowed to look at a woman). As far as religion goes, the followers are expected to fast by day and pray at night.
4. In what ways do these hadiths reflect common themes in many of the world’s “wisdom traditions,” and in what respects are they distinctly Islamic? These hadiths reflect the common themes of “the wisdom tradition” by talking about the people serving their institutionalized religious master. They are distinctly Islamic in their teachings about giving back and treatment of their family and the less fortunate. Also, to live modestly is a recurring theme of the hadiths, but, in our society, many people give back and do good unto others and embrace their separate religions.
Document 9.3: The Voice of the Law
1. What do you find most striking about the legal prescriptions in these passages? If someone refuses to pat zakat, alms for the poor, and “denies its obligatory character,” they are put to death. I’m surprised by how much helping the poor is emphasized and how harsh the punishment is.
2. In what ways do these selections draw on and apply the teachings of the Quran and the hadiths? These selections draw on and apply teachings of the Quran and the hadiths by emphasizing the equal treatment of others and regulate these in the document. In addition, the selections display the value of doing good onto others, which is a direct application of the teachings of the Quran.
3. How does the role of law in early Islamic civilization differ from that of modern Western society? The role of law in early Islamic civilization was to make sure people followed their religion as well as follow the teachings in the Quran and it relates to the values of their religion, which is expressed in the Quran. While, modern Western society is not as religious and is more secular in their views and roles of law.
4. Why do you think the role of law was so central, so highly detailed, and so comprehensive in Islamic civilization? The role of law was so central, detailed, and comprehensive in Islamic civilization I think because they wanted to dictate very strictly how people of Islam should behave. They put these laws in place in order to not disrespect the religion and to keep Islam in the highest light possible. Also, so that the religion could be followed as they wanted it to be.
5. What do this document and Document 9.2 suggest about the problems that the early Islamic community confronted? This document and document 9.2 suggest that early Islamic community confronted problems stemming from authority over people’s personal romantic whims and wills. Laws stated that men could not go after other women and they could not cheat or else. There were specific laws concerning marriage and Islamic men could not marry women who
1. How would you define the religious sensibility of Rumi’s poetry? Rumi’s poetry displays religion as a personal faith in that God is always with us even when we do not know it. Also, finding God and discovering your faith are primary objectives in his mind.
2. How does it differ from the approach to Islam reflected in the sharia? His poems differ from the approach to Islam reflected in the sharia because it displays Islam as more open and ready to accept newcomers despite their pasts. In addition, it differs since it discusses that structures and laws are not important unlike what is reflected in the sharia.
3. What criticisms might the orthodox legal scholars (ulama) have made regarding the Sufi understanding of Islam? The orthodox legal scholars would have criticized the Sufi understanding in that it is wrong to be so focused on spiritual connection. The ulama focus on buildings and monuments built to honor God and would criticize the Sufi for not doing the same.