Confucius stressed that a harmonious society can be created through the practice of Li. Discuss how this is possible by using the Five Relationships concepts. What is the Five Relationships? * In Confucianism, it’s between superior and inferior person. They are ruler – subject, husband – wife, father – son, older brother – younger brother, and elder friend – younger friend. * Each has a formal responsibility to carry out toward the other. The husband has responsibility for li toward his wife as she has an obligation for li toward him. The family is formally structured among males.
* Friendships outside the family are ritually governed. * Relationship between ruler and subject entail obligations on each side. * Younger people learn from their elders and the elders learn from observing the junzi. In summary, there are five distinctive qualities or virtues in the junzi. (1) Humans exert their uprightness regardless of outward circumstances. (2) Humans are magnanimous, expressing forgiveness toward others. Humans are not to be ruled by laws but follow an internal principle. (3) Humans are sincere in speech and action and are not a mouthpiece for hire.
Their world is their bond. (4) Humans are earnest. They want to be rather than seem to be. Genuine good work replaces the mere appearance of it (5) Humans are benevolent, always generous in their relationship with people. Why Confucius think education is important? * Li present as the principle of harmony that should rule the home, the society and the empire. Li has to do with ritual, the correct formal way to behave in religious rites or in court ceremonies. * Li applied to the naturally good human being yield yi, which is the personalization of Li. * Yi is internalized Li.
When humans internalize the rites, selfishness is overcome and benevolence takes its place. They act on what is appropriate to themselves and to their position in society. They attain the mean that gives harmony. * Confucius taught that Li is learned in studying rites and music, which included poetry. Music is required study, as its performance accompanied all ceremonies, whether religious sacrifice, court assembly or family entertainment. Harmony in music reflects harmony in society and the universe. * Ren (jen) is humaneness, the quality of being a genuine human being to other human beings.
This quality of human kindness is in balance with Li and Yi – to keep formalism from destroying the highest and best possibilities of human personalities. Ren seeks the good of others as well as the self. * In Confucianism, Shu is reciprocity which means individuals treating others as they would like to be treated. They do not do to others what they would not want done to themselves. Taoism Zhuangzi (Chuang Tzu) * A later Daoist and he wrote Dao De Jing to distinguish Daoism from Confucianism. * Also known for the philosophical questions he raises regarding the experience of dreaming.
Beneath the apparently simple questions lie some profound questions about what is real and how to know what is real. * For example, Chuang Chou (Chuang Tzu) dreamed that he was a butterfly, a butterfly fluttering about, enjoying itself. It did not know that is Chuang Chou. But suddenly, he awake and he did not know whether he was Chuang Chou who had dreamed that he was a butterfly or whether he was a butterfly dreaming that he was Chuang Chou. Between Chuang Chou and the butterfly, there must be some distinction. That is what is called the transformation of things.
According to Daoism, societies suffer when they disregard the Dao. Interpret the statement with you own opinion. In my own opinion, yes, societies suffer when they disregard the Dao. Societies suffers because of disharmony with the nature and universe. * Suffering comes from trying to conquer nature, altering the way of the universe and establishing artificial human organizations. * Artificial needs to develop and value foreign to natural order to entice humans away from the source of their peace and harmony. * Civilization is an enemy of the contented human.
Humans| * The best human is natural human. * Humans are essentially good and can enjoy a good life in the world. * They should seek to live as long as long as possible, old age is a sign of wisdom in fulfilling the proper human role. * People should not be forced into educations, rituals, social organization and etiquette. * Humans are best when they were born weak and simple. | Problem| * Their disharmony with the universe. * Suffering comes from trying to conquer nature, altering the way of the universe and establishing artificial human organizations.
* Artificial needs to develop and value foreign to natural order to entice humans away from the source of their peace and harmony. * Civilization is an enemy of the contented human. | Solution| * Human solve their problem by returning to a simple life. * Living in harmony with the nature, either in a forest or in a small village, is the best way for a person to resolve tensions and experience peace of body and soul. * A good, long life is the reward of those who learn to go with the flow of the Dao. |