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The status of food handling practices among canteen of enrile vocational high school Essay

Acknowledgement
The researcher of this study firmly acknowledges this to our Almighty God who always guides the researcher in his everyday life. The researcher of this study has a virtue to acknowledge him for his chosen topic to study because of his ever ending love and for providing the researcher knowledge and peace upon doing this meaningful and effective study. The researcher does also acknowledge his friends for extending their love and patience they had showed the researcher to pursue this study which is definitely made him to be strong and patient enough to do this.

And the researcher also have the honour to acknowledge his great family for their ever unending support, love patience and care and for lending and providing the researcher all he need during the day of gathering data for his paper.

The researcher is also want to acknowledge his teacher, Mrs. Jesusa Carag and all the other teachers who shared their knowledge and time and for their effort to give the researcher encouragement in his paper in order for him to come out with a meaningful result to his chosen topic and also for their support patience and trust in teaching the researcher in order for him to end his paper with a successful and meaningful result to our community.

CHAPTER I
The Problem and Review of Related Literature
Introduction
There is one thing all men have in common with the animals, the necessity for a daily food. For rich and poor are alike a certain amount of food is necessary to keep the body have enough food to sustain energy. Hence, we defined food as any substance which when taken into the body will either produce heat and energy to build tissue. Food must be planned, prepared and served with unvarying regularity in order to maintain heat and efficiency of the consumers.

Food is very important factor for the survival of men and women, it nourishes and provides enough energy and power to survive in life, but because food is important we must consider the proper ways of preparing, handling and storing of food in a way to prevent food contaminate with bacteria which cause danger to the people who will eat them. School canteens have a special role to play in the education, health and well being of the students and school communities that they served.

The school canteen should reflect on the educational goals of the school, support and compliment the student learning. When a school canteen used daily, the food provided through this service may compromise a almost third of students total daily intake and has a significant influenced on their health and especially nutrition. The eating habits of students are greatly influenced by the food available in the school environment. Food eaten at the school contributes substantially to the students’ daily nutrients intake and has a considerable influence in the development of their eating habits, growth patterns and energy levels.

A positive attitude towards a school canteen that supports healthy eating should be promoted and endorsed. This would be facilitated through whole school approach to nutrition and healthy eating habits that take into account values, attitudes and beliefs about food and eating. However, food can transmit diseases from person to person as well as serve as a growth medium for bacteria that can cause food poisoning. Food contaminated with bacteria can make people to sickness. Safe food handling should be a primary concern for cooking.

There are many cases involving food borne illness is a result of eating in larger establishments mainly because of the large number of people affected. Since many symptoms of food borne illness are flu like symptoms, some cases are ignored as people believed they have the flu. One of the major causes of food borne illness is improper food handling which can happen at home as well as in public eating establishments. Salmonella bacteria can be found in food such as raw meats, poultry eggs and dairy products from these foods, the bacteria contaminate other foods in the kitchen. Staphylococcus bacteria are found not only in raw meat but in food handlers with poor personal hygiene.

The bacteria include food handlers can be transmitted through sneezing and coughing. Even more important, poor sanitation and safety can cause a lot of money. Poor food handling procedure and unclean kitchens caused illness, unhappy costumers and even fines, summonses, and lawsuits .Food spoilage raises food cost. Poor kitchen results in injuries, medical bills and work days lost. Finally, poor sanitation and poor safety habit shows lack of respect for the costumers, fellow workers and for you.

The World Health Organization (WHO) was asked to give greater emphasis on food safety with the goal in developing suitable, integrated food safety systems for the reduction of the health risk along the entire food chain, from primary producer to the consumer.

According to Macaida Elvie et al, Food and Nutrition Research Institute (2005) stress that those foods which are nutritious are useless when they are not prepared carefully. Food and Nutrition Research pointed out practical guides to conserve nutrients in foods: (a) in soaking fruits and vegetables, keep skin intact; (b) use minimum amount of water and do not discard stock, utilize for soup, broth and sauces; (c) cook in the shortest time if possible; (d) use dripping of meat and fish are preferable.

The specific corrective action depends upon the process on how to prepare the food before serving. In preparing food, there must be an objective that it must be done prepared with an utmost care for it is being consumed by the customers and there must also an objective that product must produced in a hundred percent high quality of a safe manner.

Roy Briggs (2006) stresses that the implementation of safety procedures in the working environment is of the utmost importance to all. Everybody has a role to play and the penalties for not taking safety seriously can be severe. In addition to this, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in the United States established sets of rules governing the safety preparation of food and safety work place. Employees are required to follow these rules and guidelines.

Poor hygiene in sanitation is major contributors of diseases which may lead to malnutrition. These problems are people driven and sustainable unless people themselves are directly involved. Providing clean and safe environment is basic in ensuring the health and well being of an individual. It also contributes to the feeling of personal security towards a good health.ss

This study entitled “Status of Food Handling Practices Among the Canteen of Enrile Vocational High School” is a research that is meant to promote healthy mind and body. It is a study on sanitation that relates to the importance of cleanliness not only on food preparation but also to the workers who prepares the food. The study aimed to protect the health of those who work in the food service and those who are its patrons.

Review of Related Literature and Studies
According to Aida Galura, canteens originated in France in 1849. A warm noonday meal was given to poor children. In 1865, Victor Hugo started school feeding in England by providing warm meals in his own house to children in a nearby school. In 1891, the Young Women’s Christian Kansas City, Missouri established a cafeteria. General interest in school feeding rose in 1904 when studies revealed that there where millions of under nourished or poorly fed children in the United States.

Thus, school cafeterias have developed as a result of the realization of the necessity of providing nourishing, palatable meals to all children who eat in school. However, food handling practices among canteens has something to do with food safety and sanitation. Every food service operator has the responsibility of protecting the health of the customers and employees against infection and diseases that are caused by the lack of adequate sanitation.

Using correct methods and equipment can prevent the transmission of many types of disease causing organism from one person to another. During the time of Hippocrates (460-377 BCE), he said “first do not harm”, caution to doctors might apply equally as well to chefs. Before all your other concerns a food service institution, your first duty is to make certain that your customers do not become ill or injured as well as a result of eating your food. This is not a casual concern, many tragic deaths occur from carelessness on the part of food workers (James L. Morgan).

Roy Briggs states that our sanitary laws and regulations are so designed to protect and promote health. Health and safety is a general term which also includes many legal responsibilities, both the employer and employees can be held responsibility for neglecting the rules as set out in order the Health and Safety at Work Act (HASAWA) 1974.

According to Presidential Decree No. 856 December 23, 1975 entitled Code on Sanitation, the health of the people, of paramount importance, all efforts of public services should be directed towards the protection and promotion of health and with the advance in the field of sanitation in recent years, there arises the need for updating and codifying our scattered sanitary laws to ensure that they are keeping with modern standards of sanitation and provide a handy reference and guide for their enforcement. Food and Drug Administration (FDA Code)

According to David Mcswane et al, United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published the Food Code in 1993 which replaced three earlier model codes. The Food Service Sanitation Model Manual Includes a Model Food Service Sanitation Ordinance of 1976. The vending Food Beverages Including a Model Sanitation Ordinance of 1978, and the Retail Food Store Sanitation Code of 1982 with one Code.

The FDA has made a commitment to revise a Food Code every four years, with the assistance of experts from state and local government, industry, professional associations and colleges and universities. It was determined that a biannual revision was necessary to keep pace with changes that are occurring in food and safety and the food industry. In this text, 2001 Food Code will be referred to ask the FDA Food Code from this point on.

The FDA Code is not a law, rather, it is a set of recommendation intended to be used as a model by state and local jurisdiction when formulating their own rules and regulations. You will need to obtain a copy of the health rules and regulations that apply the food establishments in your jurisdictions.

John Willey and Sons, Inc (2005). clearly emphasized that a food safety management program is organized systems develop for all levels of the food service operation the system controls factors that can be compromise food safety and contribute to incidents of food-borne illness. A key component of this system is to provide adequate training for all food service personnel in safe food handling practices.

The National Restaurant Association has reaffirmed its position that the responsibility for providing safe and wholesome foods rests with the food service industry. It has called for the establishments of and adherence to effective standards of safe food handling practices. The association strongly urges its membership to train and test its managers to a standard of food safety knowledge and commits itself to offering comprehensive and testing to the industry.

Personnel involved in food preparation and service must know their responsibilities on how to handle food practices such as: Personal Hygiene Personal Hygiene means good health habit including bathing, washing hair, wearing clean clothing and frequent hand washing. Poor personal habits are serious hazards in food establishments. A food worker’s fingers may be contaminated with saliva during eating and smoking. Saliva, sweat and other body fluids can be harmful sources of contamination if they get into food.

Supervisors should enforce rules against eating chewing gum and smoking in food preparation, service and ware washing areas. The FDA Food Code permits food workers to drink beverages to prevent dehydration. The beverages must be in a covered container. The container must be handled in a way that prevents contamination of the employee’s hands, the container, exposed food, equipment and single used of articles.

Jewelry, including medical information, jewelry on hands and arms has no place in food production and ware washing areas. Rings, bracelets, necklaces, earrings, watches and other body part ornaments can harbour germs that can cause food-borne illness. Jewelry can also fall into food causing that maybe worn in food production and ware washing areas.

In addition, Talukder et al(2002) referred personal hygiene to those habits and behaviours that contributes to individual cleanliness which includes washing the face and hands, regular bathing, nail cutting and wearing clean clothes. Personal hygiene is critical to keep one’s self healthy and let others also remain healthy. Everyone needs to wash hands with soap, before and after meals and after using the toilet. If it is not done, chances of contracting diseases and prevalence of malnutrition increases.

Proper Use of Disposable Gloves Never handle money with gloved hands unless you immediately removed and discard the gloves. Money is highly contaminated from handling. If you take latex gloves off by rolling them inside out, the inner surface of the gloves is very contaminated from your skin. Again, if you take disposable gloves off, throw them away. Never re-use or wash disposable gloves, always throw them away.

In addition, Health Departments in some localities require to use of some kind of barrier between hands and any foods that are ready to eat, foods that will be served without further cooking. If gloves were used correctly, it can protect food against cross contamination.

Proper Attire during Food Preparation and Service
Work clothes and other apparel should always be clean. The appearance of a clean uniform is more appealing to the guests. During food preparation and service, it is easy for a food worker’s clothing to become contaminated. If you feel that you have contaminated your souter clothing, change it into a new set of work clothes. Keep in mind, however, that protective apparel in similar to disposable gloves. Neither protects food when contaminated.

Hats, hair covering nets, and beard restraints discourage workers from touching their hand beard. These restraints also prevent hair from falling into food or unto food-contact surfaces. Most states and local jurisdictions require food workers to effectively keep their hair from contacting exposed foods, clean equipment utensils, and linens and unwrapped single-used articles.

Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point System (HACCP)
One effective safety is called the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP). Versions of this system have adapted throughout the food service industry. The purpose of HACCP is to identify, monitor, and control dangers of foods contamination.

According to James L. Morgan(2005), HACCP is a food safety management system that provides identification and assessment of the hazards and risks associated with a food operation. It also provides prevention and strategies on known hazards that endanger the health of human.

The National Advisory Committee and Microbiological Criteria for Food (NACMCF) Working Group created guidelines and redefined the seven basic principles of HACCP as an effective and rational means of assuring food safety from harvest to consumption.

The seven principles of HACCP, which encompass a systematic approach to the identification, prevention and control of food safety hazards include: (a) Conduct a Hazard Analysis; (b) Determine Critical Control Points; (c) Establish Critical Limits; (d) Establish Monitoring Procedures; (e) Establish Corrective Actions; (f) Establish Recordkeeping and Documentation Procedures; (g) establish Verification Procedures.

Theoretical Framework
The concepts of food handling among canteens are indeed important to secure foods and protect the health of the costumers. According to the Department of Health (DOH) concern, it is part of their responsibility to make policy standard which is needed to follow among food workers. As such Department of Health is expected to conduct programs to enhance more the knowledge of food workers with regards to clean food handling. Likewise, our food services department is committed in providing safe and wholesome food to the costumers.

In addition, the President Decree No. 856 Code on Sanitation, claims that the health of the people being of paramount importance. All efforts of public services should be directed towards the protection and promotion of health. The advance in the field of sanitation in recent years, there is an arise in the need for updating and codifying our scattered sanitary laws to ensure that they are in keeping with modern standards of sanitation and provide a handy reference and guide for their enforcement.

As Presidential Decree No. 856 Code on Sanitation Section 15 states that “No person shall be employed in any food establishment without a Health Certificate issued by the local health authority.” This Certificate shall be issued only after the required physical and medical examination which performed and immunized is administered at prescribed intervals. Furthermore, as Section 31 on Presidential Decree 856 Code on Sanitation claims that it shall be the duty of the provincial, municipal or city health officer to cause an inspection and evaluation of food establishment requiring a permit for its operators.

In this regard, food among canteens should be aware enough with regard to food handling. It is necessary that seminars should be conducted to provide more convenient information needed for the improvement of work habits. Among individuals who have engaged to business just like the canteen should practice the good and proper food handling. It is their responsibility to ensure the safety of food before serving.

To avoid illness, sickness and injuries, food workers must enhance to follow the rules and regulations upon the preparation of food. The guidelines being employed by the local health should be strictly followed.

Statement of the Problem
This study attempts to ascertain the status of food handling among the canteen and feedbacks of the customers of the canteen in Enrile Vocational High School. Specifically, it attempts to answer the following questions: 1. What is the profile of the food worker respondents in terms of: a. Sex: male or female

b. Age
c. Educational Attainment
d. Trainings they attended
e. Number of years as food-workers
2. What is the extent of the implementation among canteen operators in term of: a. Food Safety Standards
b. Food Sanitation Standards

Hypothesis
This study assumes that canteen inside Enrile Vocational High School do not totally practice the proper food handling. That some of the food workers are not aware on the implementation of food safety and sanitation standards.

Scopes and Limitations
The researchers in the study consider the canteens located inside the Enrile Vocational High School and the students and personnel as a source of data and information. Canteens located outside the school campus are excluded in this research. The researchers shall limit themselves to elicit perceptions of respondents regarding information on proper food handling of EVHS canteens. However, interview shall also be concluded to establish authentic data and information regarding food handling.

Thus, this study confines investigation of the compliance of the EVHS canteens on the food handling practices as per Department of Health policy and standards and the implication of services on the safety and lifestyle of the costumers. The food workers as respondents of this research shall be limited to the manager of the canteen and their respective cook. It also includes the costumers as respondents. Thus, food workers among canteen outside the EVHS campus shall in this study. Respondents are request to answer the survey questionnaire.

Significance of the Study
The objective of this study attempts to evaluate the food handling practices among the canteens particularly providing an updated set of information pertaining to canteen operators. In particular, this study will benefit the following:

Canteen Personnel – The findings of this study hopes to educate canteen personnel with regards to food handling for them to know how to handle food safety. Through this study, they could be able to grasps important information for better management. It hopes that this research contributes an important aspect for which the canteen personnel should follow as they would become more appreciative among different types of costumers. Department of Health – The findings of the study will serve as information whether the policies that they had implemented were really applied.

Teachers and Students – This study will serve as a guide for the teachers ad students in making necessary adjustment or modifications in planning, implementing and evaluating the proper way of handling foods. Future Researchers – This study will serve as a future guide for future researcher who will have similar study

Definition of Terms
Canteen- The restaurant of a large institution/a factory or college Department of Health (DOH)- is the national authority on health providing technical and the other members of the civic society in effectively implementing programs, projects and services Food- anything consumed intended to supply energy or nourishment of an entity and maybe prepared for sale Food handling- it is the act of preparing foods with the use of hands Food Preparation Practice- is the habitual act of preparing food stuffs for consumption may also involved heating the food ingredients Salmonella (salmonellae)- this organism accounts for many cases for gastrointestinal disorders Sanitation – the creation and maintenance of healthful or hygienic condition.

Sanitation comes from the Latin word sanitas meaning health. In a food service situation, the food sanitation means wholesome food, handled and prepared in a way that the food is not contaminated with diseases causing agents. In other words, sanitation is what helps food stay safe. Staphylococcus aureus- it is an organism that causes the occurrence of disease called staphylococcal food poisoning due to improper storage of foods, contamination of cook foods due to handling of infected workers and keeping food at unfavourable temperature allowing the growth of staphylococcus aureus.

Chapter 2
Methods
This chapter discusses the methods of methodologies that will be employed in the study. It also includes the research design, the respondents of the study, the data gathering tool, data gathering procedures, bibliographies, the appendices and the curriculum vitae. Research Design

This study used descriptive correlation design. The descriptive design will be used to convene the status of the canteens’ implementation of food safety and sanitation of DOH policies. Correlation design was also used in study since ascertained the relationship between food handling practices among canteens also design was utilized because it sought to determine whether there is significant relationship between food handling practices of the food-workers respondents when grouped according to their profile. Respondents of the study

The respondents of the study shall be food workers and the costumers. Food workers respondents in this study include the manager of the canteen and their respective cooks. The costumers in the other hand, include the
students and teachers who buy foods in the canteen inside the Enrile Vocational High School Research Instrument

The data in gathering tools be used in this study shall be survey questionnaires to evaluate the different procedures used by the canteen service operators and same questionnaires shall be used for the costumers. The research instrument of this study has practically two parts. First part of this survey questionnaire involves the profile of the food-worker respondents.

Second part is the survey questionnaire composed of the indicators of proper food handling practices among canteens in Enrile Vocational High School such as (a) Extent of implementatiom of food safety and sanitation standards; and (b) Problems encountered by canteen operators. The Likert’s Scale below shall be the scale to be used in assessing the extent of implementation of food safety and sanitation standards and problems encountered by canteen operators. Scale

Adjectival Description
5
Excellent
4
Very satisfactory
3
Satisfactory
2
Good
1
Poor

Data Gathering Procedure
With the researcher’s aims to facilitate floating of questionnaire, I will approach canteen operators which serve as a subject to ask permission in conducting our study and then we will give background information questionnaires to the food – workers respondents. I will also give questionnaires to sixty five costumers who eat among the canteen inside the Enrile Vocational High School.

BILIOGRAPHY
BOOKS
Briggs, Roy (2006), Food Purchasing and Preparation, Cassell wellington house, London. Cruz, Elvie, et al., Food Selection and Preparation Practices, Rex Bookstore, Taguig, Philippines Galura, Aida T., Home Technology: Management and Service I

Loken, John, 1993, Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point Food Safety Manual, New York Mcswane, David, Et Al., 2005, Food Safety and Sanitation, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 4th Edition Morgan, James L., 1996, Culinary Creation:

An Introduction to Food Service and World Cuisine, Butterworth-Heinemann Services, Burlington USA Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford Raymond, Christian J., 1994, Food Safety the Hard Analysis Critical Control Point Way: Safeguarding Against Food Borne Illness, Educational Institute, States of America Roldan, Amelita S. And Benito T. Edica, 2008, Food Service in Institution, Manila Shiferaw, S. Yang, P. Vugia,R. Marcus, J. Koehler, V. Deneen, F. Strokes,John W., 1973, Food Services in Institution, WMC Brown Co., Massachusetts, 2nd Edition Willey, John And Sons, Inc. in Cooperation with the Educational Foundation of the National Restaurants Association, 2008, Applied Food and Sanitation, John Willey and Sons, New Jersey Internet

http://vm.cfsan.fda.gov/~comm/nacmcfp.html
http://ssa-insight.blogspot.com/2008/07/proper-hygiene- practices-forhandling.html www.WHO.Int/PEH/CEH/Bankok/bookletpart2
www.toronto.ca/health/foodhandler/fh_index.html
www.inspection.gc.ca
www.lawphil.net/statutes/presdecs/pd1975/pd_856_1975.html

Appendices
Appendix A
Survey Questionnaire
Part I. Background information of the food-workers respondents. Name: ________________________________________________
Address: _____________________________________________
Sex: ___________Age: ____________
Highest educational Attainment: _____________________________ Number of years as food worker: _____________________________ Do you have training or experience relative to food handling? If you have, what are these? Please check ( ) home trainings for the old

( ) skills training by TESDA or any other agencies
( ) exposure in the classes
If others, please notify:________________________________________

Scale
Adjectival Description
5
Excellent
4
Very satisfactory
3
Satisfactory
2
Good
1
Poor
Part II. Food Handling Practices among the canteen in Enrile Vocational High School.

Extent of implementation of food safety and sanitation standards: A. Food Safety Standard
E 5
VS
4
S
3
G
2
P
1
1. There is a written agreement between the concessionaire and Enrile Vocational High School. 5
4
3
2
1
3. The canteen operator assures that the food supplier has a business permit and sanitary permit. 5
4
3
2
1
4. The canteen operator coordinates with the municipal health office on the periodic monitoring of food preparation and packaging. 5
4
3
2
1
4. Foods being served are nutritious, safe and affordable.
5
4
3
2
1
5. Inspection of the consigned foods shall be made before serving or vending them at the canteen. 5
4
3
2
1
6. Food items are properly sealed.
5
4
3
2
1
7. Garbage beans are properly distributed in the area and closed. 5
4
3
2
1
8.Water is clean
5
4
3
2
1
9.The canteen operators has proper attire in preparing foods 5
4
3
2
1

B. Food Sanitation Standard
E
5
VS
4
S
3
G
2
P1

1.Practice hand-washing procedures
5
4
3
2
1
2.Clean and sanitize utensils
5
4
3
2
1
3.Check production and expiration date
5
4
3
2
1
4.Separate perishable and non-perishable foods
5
4
3
2
1
5.Sweep kitchen floors to remove food droppings and to prevent the harbour of insects 5
4
3
2
1
6.Store cooked foods carefully
5
4
3
2
1
7.Wash foods before cooking
5
4
3
2
1
8.Avoid contact between raw and cooked foods
5
4
3
2
1

Problems Encountered by Canteen Operators:

E
5
VS
4
S
3
G
2
P
1
1.Lack of facilities and amenities
5
4
3
2
1
2.Lack of employee or staff
5
4
3
2
1
3.Sanitation and safety awareness
5
4
3
2
1
4.Ventilation
5
4
3
2
1
5.Preservation of foods
5
4
3
2
1
6.Food preparation
5
4
3
2
1
7.No enough space
5
4
3
2
1
8.Serving the food
5
4
3
2
1

Answer honestly the following questions. Write your answer on the blanks provided after the questions. 1. What is the best thing should a canteen always practice in order to have a clean and appropriate place for food buyers? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. In what way does the canteen products affect the health of the customers who buy on it? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. What is the school canteen should practice in order for the foods they sell among customers not to be contaminated with bacteria which cause sickness? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. In your own observation, what is the main problem that you can see or refer to our canteen? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. What is the action that you can refer or suggest to the school canteen according to the problem you can see about it? _________________________________________________________________ Appendix B

Republic of the Philippines
Enrile Vocational High School

Dear respondents,
Greetings‼
The undersigned student of Enrile Vocational High School, are currently conducting a study entitled “Status of Food Handling Practices Among the Canteen in Enrile Vocational High School”. In view here of, may the researcher request a few minutes of your precious time to answer honestly the survey questionnaire attached. Rest assured that any information elicited will be treated with high degree of confidentiality and optimum anonymity. Thank you very much for utmost support. May God bless you.

Very truly yours,
Richard A. Quendangan

Curriculum Vitae

Name: Richard A. Quendangan
Home Address: #14-B Cumigad Street, Brgy. San Jose, Centro, Enrile, Cagayan Date of Birth: January 23, 1999
Sex: Male
Age: 13
Parents: Mr. Mario A. Quendangan
Mrs. Maribel A. Quendangan
Religion: Roman Catholic

Educational Background
Secondary: Enrile Vocational High School
Elementary: Sabino Acorda Central School


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