“The most important thing that parents can do is talk and read to their children. During the toddler and preschool years, it is critical to provide children with different language and reading experiences.”(G. Reid Lyon, PhD, Chief of the Child Development and Behavior Branch within the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development)While knowing how to read is essential for day-to-day survival, developing a passion to read opens new worlds for children. By reading, children can acquire all the knowledge, skills and values essential for their success in school and in life.| | About 20 to 30 percent of school-age children have difficulties learning to read? At this young age, this can be embarrassing for them, and can result in low motivation and self-esteem. Children who are most at risk for reading difficulties are those who were not read to at home.
Academic achievement or (academic) performance is the outcome of education — the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their educational goals. Academic achievement is commonly measured by examinations or continuous assessment but there is no general agreement on how it is best tested or which aspects are most important — procedural knowledge such as skills or declarative knowledge such as facts. In California, the achievement of schools is measured by the Academic Performance Index.
Individual differences influencing academic performance Individual differences in academic performance have been linked to differences in intelligence and personality. Students with higher mental ability as demonstrated by IQ tests (quick learners) and those who are higher in conscientiousness (linked to effort and achievement motivation) tend to achieve highly in academic settings. A recent meta-analysis suggested that mental curiosity (as measured by typical intellectual engagement) has an important influence on academic achievement in addition to intelligence and conscientiousness. Children’s semi-structured home learning environment transitions into a more structured learning environment when children start first grade. Early academic achievement enhances later academic achievement.
Parent’s academic socialization is a term describing the way parents influence students’ academic achievement by shaping students’ skills, behaviors and attitudes towards school. Parent influence students through the environment and discourse parents have with their children. Academic socialization can be influenced by parents’ socio-economic status. Highly educate parents tend to have more stimulating learning environments. Children’s’ first few years of life are crucial to the development of language and social skills. School preparedness in these areas help students adjust to academic expectancies.  Another very important enhancer of academic achievement is the presence of physical activity. Studies have shown that physical activity can increase neurotic activity in the brain. Exercise specifically increases executive brain functions such as attention span and working memory.