The research is about primitive architecture. In this paper, different aspects involving primitive architecture will be discussed and defined. The essence of the research will also be included in the data that will be presented. Comparison between the modern and the pre-historic architecture will somehow be incorporated in the presentation of data. The history of architecture in China will be emphasized in the research. Understanding Architecture As defined by an encyclopedia from the internet, a simple description of architecture is the art and science of designing buildings.
In a larger definition, architecture includes the design of the total built environment starting and including the macro echelon of town planning, urban design and landscapes, and reaching up to the micro echelon of furniture and product creation. It also refers to the product and end result of a specific design. It is said that according to Vitruvius meaning ‘On Architecture,’ the earliest reviewing work on architecture that good quality buildings and infrastructures should have Venustas meaning beauty; Firmitas meaning firmness and Utilitas meaning utility.
With these three elements, architecture can be defined to be balance and coordinated; emphasizing that none of the three is overshadowing the other. Architecture is also a multi-disciplinary field wherein mathematics, technology in today’s era, social sciences, history, philosophy and politics are being used – a science, arising out of many other sciences and festooned with much and wide-ranging learning as defined by Vitruvius. On the other hand, primitive as defined by answers. com, it is something that is related to an earliest or original stage or state and is also somehow being a bit evolved from an early ancestral or old type.
It is also connected to a nonindustrial and frequently tribal civilization mostly those who are pigeonholed by a low level of economic intricacy. Brief description of the development of Architecture The first development of architecture is from the dynamics flanked by the needs which are beneficial environmental conditions, security, etc and means which are the accessible building equipments and construction equipment and machinery.
The prehistoric and primitive architecture are part of this period wherein they are stuck between the needs and means. As human beings develop and the awareness started to be formalized, through oral customs and traditions, architecture then became a craft. The process of trial and error was used during this time. The ancient human settlers subsist in the rural community but as time passes by and as a superfluous manufacturing began to take place, the rural areas where converted into urban areas.
Because of this, the intricacy of buildings and their classifications heightened; roads and bridges then began to develop. The establishment of new buildings were also started; schools, hospitals and recreational facilities came out. Still, the religious architecture maintained its pre-eminence and superiority in most societies. In addition, different architectural designs were developed and manuscripts in architecture commenced to be printed. Works of Vitruvius and Vaastu Shastra in early India were some examples.
A new chapter in architecture began because of the resurgence and the stress on the individuals and humankind rather than religion. Primitive Architecture The primitive architecture is a topic for the archaeologist rather than being the historian of art; it requires the simplest and briefest point. If we are to compare the modern and the primitive era, it can be seen clearly that during the primitive era, people do build simple and uncomplicated kinds of buildings and infrastructures and yet still having the same purpose especially in civilized communities.
The materials is making a hut and a house for shelter of the people, the shrine where they can worship, the parapet for their protection and defence as well, an embankment over the grave of the ruler or conqueror were very simple and mostly came from natural resources. The transition of architecture starts from the ancient times and from the barbaric to educated architecture. Antiquated Monuments The monuments during the prehistoric times varied from different sizes, classification and years of existence.
They are made out of excellence and prestige; it is said that some of this prehistoric monuments came from the Roman people and others are in the Christian. These monuments are divided into two different principal groups; the megalithic structure and lake dwellings – having the briefest mention. They consists of extensive number of very prehistoric and ancient kinds of primitive houses or huts that were built and constructed on wooden piles in the lakes of Switzerland and also other countries in both hemispheres.
Other remnants of Europe and Asia are also important; they were broadly dispersed and consist in most cases of immense lumps of sandstone arranged and filed in queue, round, or avenues, occasionally with vast lintels resting upon them. Dolmens were upright stones that are standing in pairs with lintels while upright stones without lintels were called menhirs. On the other hand, circles were called cromlechs. Chinese Primitive Architecture It is said that architecture reflects the material and artistic criterion of a civilization; thus including the Chinese architecture.
In China, the earliest primitive shelter to be built was owned by a Peking Man who is believed exist long time ago for many years approximately a million and 300,000 years ago. In 21st up to 11th century B. C. , during the slave civilization of the Xia and Shang era, houses varied according to the standing and class of its residents. Mostly, the slaves live in pit-style residences; on-the-ground houses with shoved earth walls. Usually, their houses have one or many rooms depending on the inhabitant and typically, the floors were firm and even after being heated by inferno.
In 1066-771 B. C. , the Western Zhou dynasty spotted a noticeable progress in architecture in the ancient China. The members of the royal families were given their own lands so that they can build their feudal states. Because of this, the building activities heightened. In Qishan, Shaanxi, the quarry of the Zhou palace had developed having the main buildings, terraces, and facade and backside courtyards all on a single axis. Another enhanced aspect was the roofing materials having the arrival of earth tiles that were used to wrap the ridge and gutters.
The people covered the rammed walls and floors with a combination of soil, lime and sand that provides a hard and smooth surface in the wall. During that time, the people also learned how to construct thicker north walls so that it will defy the strong and cold storms. But, the most important architectural development in this time was the creation of corbel brackets also known as dougong in Chinese. They are used to support the projecting eaves and were inserted on column heads.
During the Qin Dynasty, around 1644 to 1911 A. D. , the construction of the Great Wall and the enormous terracotta army became famous in this time. In 206 B. C. to 220 A. D, during the Han dynasty, different roof styles were very prominent. In the time of Tang dynasty, the creation of palaces, Buddhist temples and pagodas prosper. From 960 to 1279, Song dynasty, additional stylish elastic designs were formed, featuring polygonal, multi-eave roofs, complicated ceiling constructions, delicately engraved doors, windows, columns and brackets.
In the time of Ming dynasty, around 1368 to 1644, Wuliangdian in Nanjing’s Linggu Temple was created that became the most famous beamless hall. In todays generation, China’s architecture is mostly conserved and reproduced for evocative reasons to improve their tourism. Ending Thoughts The primitive architecture gave way to what we have now in our generation. With the transition of building infrastructures from simple to complicated one. The people in modern generation develop different ways to improve the architecture that we have nowadays.
I firmly believe that because of the architecture in primitive era, the modern architecture develop into a high-quality standard. We can clearly see nowadays the different buildings and condominiums scattered everywhere – a manifestation that the architecture in today’s generation really evolve a lot compared to the ancient era. As an ending note, the progression of architecture came to be progressive and successful and also we shall give special credits to the architects of primitive time and modern time.