Dukkha is one of the main concepts in Buddhism which in English terms corresponds to pain, dissatisfaction, suffering, anguish, discomfort, stress, affliction, sorrow, frustration and anxiety. It is a term derived from certain instances that relates to uneasiness. The teachings about Buddha are based on concrete foundation of truth as is reflected in the Four Noble Truths. The teachings on the Four Noble Truths are known by all and the beliefs have a known basis acceptable on mere faith.
The Four Noble Truths therefore are said to be fundamental teachings of Buddhism taught as the first lessons to an individual being introduced to such a religion. It is considered as a doctrine which contains way of life which followers assert that it can lead to suffering. From the Buddha’s point of enlightenment, the teachings are said to have strong psychological insight and a cognitive methodology. Accordingly, the Four Noble Truths provide that suffering as part of human life can be eliminated through devotion to such teachings.
The interest of Buddha was to show interest in the direct path to true happiness. The Four Noble Truths form part of Buddha’s teachings and are said to be noble as they are taught by Noble individuals. The people involved in the teachings have strong perceptions about reality and thus understanding such teachings makes one ennobled. Buddha became enlightened about the profound truth in relation to the nature of life after seeing the light under Bodhi tree. The Four Noble Truths include the noble truth about suffering, origin of suffering, cessation of suffering and way leading to cessation of suffering.
The first teaching about the Four Noble Truths clearly indicates that life is characterized by frustration, suffering and dissatisfaction. Dukkha promotes individuals existence with implications on matters affecting body and mind. The human body is complex and it is affected by issues such as old age, pain, sickness, war and death. The frustration and pain which is caused by impermanence as individuals struggle with life to be happy and stay a comfortable life. During this time of seeking for comfort, finding pleasure becomes invariable hence turning to pain.
In other instances, suffering becomes inevitable as much as people live according to Dukkha’s teachings. The mind is affected by matters such as failing to acquire what one likes in life, staying away from things or people a person likes most or being in a life situation which is not pleasant. Individuals suffer as a result of hopelessness which is related to lack of satisfaction in life caused by desire. IN this aspect the first provision of the Four Nobel Truths corresponds to reality about human suffering.
Second teaching according to Four Nobel Truths relates to origin of suffering which results from engagement of individuals in day to day activities. Three main unsatisfactory experiences identified as causes of dissatisfactions include craving, aversion and ignorance. In this aspect, craving is a constituent of wanting more or greed. Individuals always are unsatisfied with what they have and hence want to engage in activities that lead to suffering. Aversion in its category relates to hatred or failure to engage with others hence making an individual suffer.
Ignorance is a common element in the lives of many individuals which is attributable to lack of wisdom. Ending of suffering is the third component in which case life can be without dissatisfactions leading to peaceful state. Suffering can be eliminated from the life of individuals as per teachings of Buddhism. Elimination of suffering from human life is a concept that can be eliminated through being devoid of feeling and passion. Buddhism taught about an appropriate approach towards elimination of suffering which involves mortification and indulgence.
Elimination of suffering from an individual’s life is therefore achieved through extinguishment of aversion, craving and ignorance. The truth of the path leading to end of suffering is the final concept of the Fourth Nobel Truths. This means a way of life without dissatisfactions which led to peace of mind and happiness. The most important aspect that leads to cessation of suffering is through following of the middle path. This is done without consideration of subsidence of extreme desire which results to full release of occurrence.
According to teachings by Buddha there is the Noble Eightfold path used as a way of eliminating suffering from individual’s life resulting to achievement in one’s life. The foundation of Buddhism is rooted in Eightfold path which was first enumerated by Buddha. These provisions are considered s measures towards enlightenment and should be put into consideration to end suffering. The Eightfold path is a practical guideline that considers ethical and mental development in human life for purpose of freeing a person from delusions. The principles are classified in three categories which relates to wisdom, ethical conduct and mental development.
Wisdom constitutes of right view and right intention, Ethical conduct is a constituent of right speech, right action and right livelihood. Finally, mental development constitutes of right effort, right mindfulness and right concentration. Right view is the first principle in Eightfold path which means to see and understand issues in reality as a way of realizing the Four Noble Truth. It is one of the most critical component of wisdom which makes an individual to understand the law in relation to karma and karmic. Right view is attained, enhanced and sustained in all mind capacities.
Right intention is another main principle in the category of wisdom which refers to mental energy in control of individual’s actions. Basically, right intention is described as commitment to mental and ethical considerations for purpose of self-improvement. Three main types of right intentions recognized by Buddha include intention of renunciation, good will and harmlessness. In the category of ethical conduct there is right speech which clearly reflects the teachings of Buddha in which words can lead to creation of enemies, breaking or saving of life, and creation of peace or start of war.
Right action is another aspect of ethical conduct which involves the entire body as a means of expressing feelings. Buddha’s teachings advocate for right action which results to respect of others for the purpose of a peaceful existence. Right livelihood is the other right of ethical conduct whereby an individual is deemed to live a righteous life. Right livelihood should be achieved through proper means which does not harm others. Mental development is the final concept of the Eightfold path which constitutes of first, right effort which is an act of will achieve through mental energy.
The energy that fuels envy, desire and aggression can on the other hand promote honesty, kindness and self discipline. Right mindfulness is another principle controlled and perfected by cognition. The main principle of this concept is seeing things as they are through a clear consciousness. Right mindfulness is a concept which creates awareness on the way of individuals thought. Finally, right concentration refers to mental development occurring as a concept of natural consciousness. Right concentration according to Buddhist teachings is achieved through mediation.
All these rights reflect the main issues underlying individual’s life in the concept of suffering. References Hommel, W. (2007) Budha and the Four Noble Truths: Dukkha, Rising of Dukkha, Nirvana and the Path Leading to Nirvana. Retrieved on 25th July 2010 from http://buddhismtaoism. suite101. com/article. cfm/main_buddhist_concepts Hommel, W. (2007) Budha and the Four Noble Truths: Dukkha, Rising of Dukkha, Nirvana and the Path Leading to Nirvana. Retrieved on 25th July 2010 from http://buddhismtaoism. suite101. com/article. cfm/main_buddhist_concepts