Banana is a tropical plant classified as annual and it produces very abundantly. It is cultivated throughout the country especially in the provinces. “The king of the fruits”, mango fruit is one of the most popular, nutritionally rich fruit with unique flavor, fragrance, taste, and health promoting qualities making it a common ingredient in new functional foods often called “super fruits”. Banana is one of the delicious tropical seasonal fruit and believed to be originated in the sub-Himalayan plains of Indian subcontinent. Botanically, this exotic fruit belongs to the family of Anacardiaceous, a family that also includes numerous species of tropical fruiting trees.
The focus of the researcher is not the fruit but the Banana sap produces stain on the clothes and such stain is difficult to remove. This observation gave the researcher the idea of using the mango sap as substrate for pen’s ink with the thinking that the banana sap could stabilize ink.
The purpose of this study is to utilize the banana sap as an alternative ingredient which very abundant source of quality ink. In addition, it maximizes the use of banana which grows abundantly in any rural areas and that it minimize the problem on waste disposal. The researcher also considers the challenge of doing this project being the first to do this study. The excitement as to the output will work or not is another point of consideration.
Objectives of the study
The study focuses on the possible use of one of the byproducts of banana-the sap specifically an ingredient for making ink: 1. To find out if it is possible to produce a better quality of ink out of banana sap. 2. To compare the ink produced to the commercially available ink in the market.
Statement of the Problem
The study wishes to answer the following questions:
1. Is it possible for banana saps to be an ingredient for making ink? 2. Which is better, the ink produced by the banana sap or the ink commercially produced?
The researcher considers the following hypotheses in her study: 1. Is it possible to produce a better quality ink from banana sap. 2. There is a significant difference between the ink from banana sap and the commercially prepared one.
Scope and Delimitation
This study is focused on making an alternative ingredient for ink. It also deals with the assessment of its actual advantages as compared to some commercialized one. It will also determine what we can produce other substantial products of banana.
Significance of the Study
It talks about the advantages this project has for us all and the help can give us to avoid time consumption. If the study were proved credible, awareness on the use of mangoes will be heightened. Moreover, the researcher would like to say that this study is also significant to several groups:
To the members of the family, this study is beneficial. They do not have to buy ink that are made in factories why not use out of nature.
To the students, this study may be very helpful and interesting especially to those who are fond of discoveries. Students can discover a lot as they explore in this head scratching yet cool scientific study.
To the researchers, this study means a lot for they will be able to discover something new in the field of science. Aside from their ideas of how to conduct the study, they can even learn more on how to make other ways to make ink. They can even think of something new on how to innovate this study.
Lastly, the researcher wants you to know that this study is very significant to him, because the concepts expected to be learned here are not just in science but also in the present technology and man’s revolutionary
methods of survival.
Definition of Terms
The following terms listed below are imperative to the comprehension of the study. Some definitions are gotten from “Merriam Webster Dictionary” while others are formulated by the researcher. Alternative. The choice between two mutually exclusive possibilities. A situation presenting such a choice. Botanically. A drug, medicinal preparation, or similar substance obtained from a plant or plants. Came from the Latin word “Botanicus”, also derived from the Greek word “Botanikos”. Cultivated. A land or field prepared for raising crops by plowing or fertilizing. Exotic. originating in a foreign country, especially one in the tropics or not native. Having a strange or bizarre allure, beauty, or quality.
Stabilize. To make stable or steadfast. To maintain the stability of by means of a stabilizer. To keep from fluctuating or to fix the level
Chapter II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
An Ink is a liquid or paste that contains pigments and/or dyes and is used to color a surface to produce an image, text, or design. Ink is used for drawing and/or writing with a pen, brush, or quill. Ink can be a complex medium, composed of solvents, pigments, dyes, resins, lubricants, solubilizers, surfactants, particulate matter, fluoresces, and other materials. The most common tool in written communication is the pen, which uses ink. The commercial ink is made of oil, polymers, organic soluble dye and solvent. This ink also contains glycerol, commercially known as glycerin (CH2OH-CHOH-CH2OH). Glycerin is an alcohol containing acid.
The banana sap contains colloidal liquid and organic compound. Inks employed in printing are prepared from natural and synthetic film-forming resins, and generally use pigments rather than dye to provide color. Earlier investigations were made by a group of students they found out that mango sap ink can be produced in a 1:1 volume ratio of the banana sap to commercial isopropyl alcohol with the addition of 1.75 grams of organic dye for every 10 mL of the solution. Mixture of the three components –banana sap, isopropyl alcohol and organic dye – was heated. However, since application of heat of the mixture containing the alcohol possibly removed the alcohol content, the tip of the tip easily dried up causing the tip to harden.
Chapter III. METHODOLOGY
The study used banana, water, organic dye, isopropyl alcohol, knife, blender, and measuring cup. Procedures
All the components starting from preparing the banana sap. Cut the mango trunk into pieces. Grind the banana trunk pieces with a blender to pour out the sap. After preparing the banana sap start preparing the ink. And finally, mix the organic dye to each of the three liquids: water, banana sap and isopropyl alcohol.
Chapter IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Investigatory projects are projects intended to knowing discoveries in Science. They are being researched, experimented and studied thoroughly. After several attempts and activities, effects have been finally seen by the researcher.
Organic Dye(BLUE) 10mL|
Banana Sap 5mL|
Isopropyl Alcohol 5mL|
The table shows the liquids used by the researcher. The organic dye is necessary to achieve the color given. Water is needed to make the content soluble. The mango sap is the leading ingredient for the study because it produces stains and is very sticky, which characteristics are valuable to hold together the materials. Lastly, the isopropyl alcohol is essential because it is used in the study as a solvent and as a cleansing fluid and also to purify the ink desired to be produced.
The ink created by the banana sap together with the isopropyl alcohol and organic dye was light blue compared to the commercially produced ink. Although the ink produced was lighter than the commercially produced ink. The study shows that banana sap mixed with organic dye and water produces ink. Therefore it can be used as an alternative ingredient in making ink.
Chapter V. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Based on the study investigated, the following conclusions were drawn: 1. It was possible to produce ink made out of banana sap. With that, hypothesis number 1 is accepted. 2. The produced ink made out of banana sap is more versatile compared to commercial inks. Thus, hypothesis number 2 is accepted. Recommendations
Based on the study done, the following recommendations were made: 1. More trials should be made to determine better proportion of banana sap, isopropyl alcohol and organic dye. 2. Try using different colors of organic dye for possible use in coloring pens. 3. Try other kinds of alcohol.
4. Try looking for another alternative material as substitute for banana sap. 5. Try the ink produced for each trial using marking pen, sign pens and gel pens.