The principles underpinning development and preparation of resources for learning and development Explain principles underpinning resource selection for learning and development Learning principles should be integrated into the design of all training and training materials and resources. The importance of following learning with the opportunity of practice is in the quote:- “At the heart of all experiential learning theory lies the fundamental belief that learning occurs when an individual is actively involved with concrete experience” (Walter and Marks 1981) People learn and develop in different ways and in different directions, if they can be given the chance.
One size of training and learning does not fit all. Training must provide for practice of material and knowledge learnt. Time is required to assimilate what has been learned, to accept it, to understand it, and to build confidence in it. This requires practice and repetition of the learning. The practice material/training resource provided must be meaningful. The learning methods should be covered with as much variety to meet the needs of the learner as possible. The resources should be ‘fresh’, slightly challenging and not be overused as the learner may become bored with them.
As with all learning or training you need to take into account your individual learners’ needs and how they learn best. By incorporating different delivery methods and then incorporating different resources and materials for practice you can embrace these needs. Also find time to evaluate existing resources and identify new resources taking into account inclusion and cultural diversity. So to conclude on the principles you need to take into account: • consideration of existing resources
• financial constraints and cost of developing new resources • purpose of the resource • resources need to assist learners in making connections between what they learn and its practical application and promote hands-on activities and an applied approach to learning • needs of the learners in relation to the resource and their learning styles (e.g. level of complexity, use of images) • meet equality, diversity and inclusive learning practices • different formats available (e.g. paper based, IT based within the learning and development environment and online, practical objects) • timescale for development of resources • copyright issues.
Analyse factors that are important when developing and preparing resources that conform to national legislation and organisational policies
When developing resources, as the trainer/teacher, you must conform to some legislative and organisational requirements such as:
The Safe Learner – When undertaking any practical learning situation the learner identifies health and safety responsibilities, prohibitions and restrictions (this can include safeguarding of the individual).
The Legislative restrictions – Data Protection legislation needs to be considered with all material being designed, this then incorporates
Copyright etc. Equality and Diversity and Inclusion –material must not stereotype or discriminate against any learner.
Meeting Individual Learning Needs – by taking into account Equality, Diversity & Inclusion, differentiation and learning styles, also learner levels, strengths and limitations.
Resources need to meet any awarding body standards to be useful. Resources used in my workplace have to meet JHP requirements – this is known as the Q100 document system where the trainer designs material but has to submit it to be added to the document system as acceptable and within JHP design requirements prior to use.
Evaluate the contribution of technology to the development of learning and development resources
Whatever the technology, learning is the important element. e-Learning is no longer simply associated with distance or remote learning, but can now form a choice of the best and most appropriate ways of promoting effective learning.
The Internet provides learners and trainers with the ability to access large amounts of information quickly and easily. Turning this information into a valuable learning resource requires organisation, planning, and careful selection of material. Trainers/Tutors should select websites that are appropriate to the needs of their learners and that support the objectives of the curriculum. Learners should be encouraged to develop a variety of analytical, searching and critical thinking skills and strategies to become confident and competent users of the Internet. Selected websites will need to be revisited regularly, however, to ensure that the content and/or the URL have not changed.
e-Learning = enhanced learning
What is e-learning?
E-learning is defined as ‘learning facilitated and supported through the use of information and communications technology’, e-learning may involve the use of some, or all, of the following technologies:
• desktop and laptop computers
• software, including assistive software
• interactive whiteboards
• digital cameras
• mobile and wireless tools, including mobile phones
• electronic communication tools, including email, discussion boards, chat facilities and video conferencing
• Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs)
• learning activity management systems
• e-Learning can cover a spectrum of activities from supporting learning, to blended learning (the combination of traditional and e-learning practices), to learning that is delivered entirely online.
At JHP we promote e-learning and the use of technology to support all learning. Examples of what we use or can use are:
• ETRACK – online system for portfolio building and ways to contact each other • Email – messaging, sending current and up to date work through the system as attachments • DVR – digital voice recording – portfolios are recorded then subsequently loaded onto ETRACK • Mobile phones – some learners prefer to text rather than call • Websites – for example in my occupational area I have introduced learners to www.keyskills4u.com to help with their exam practice and also a variety of key skill websites – subsequently with the introduction of functional skills relevant websites will be given to learners • EDUApps – EduApps consists of eight useful software collections that are free to download and use. All EduApps collections can run from a USB pendrive plugged into a Windows computer.
Therefore, they offer a portable, personal solution – with you wherever you go – AccessApps – support writing, reading and planning including sensory, cognitive and physical difficulties, TeachApps – software designed for teachers, LearnApps – specifically for learners, MyStudyBar – consists of a suite of freeware applications supporting reading, writing and study problems, it also provides assistance for learners with dyslexia. http://eduapps.org/ • Kibbu – is a Web tool for teachers. It create activities and quizzes for online practice, revision and testing. It makes learning attractive and interactive. It is designed to help students revise and assimilate new material. http://www.kubbu.com/ • Only2clicks – Only2clicks is a free site that lets you set up your own homepage of favorite links. Visual icons of links can be organized in categories and shared with others. http://www.only2clicks.com/ • Social Network sites – Twitter, Facebook
• YouTube – YouTube EDU brings learners and educators together in a global video classroom. http://www.youtube.com/education Developing resources to meet learning and development needs
Evaluate the suitability of a range of resources for learning and development
Evaluation criteria focus on curriculum fit, content, instructional design, technical considerations, and social considerations.
Before and during use of the different technology methods available and listed, consideration needs to be given to the: • capability of the learners – ability to use the facilities eg computer and different packages/programmes and also the confidence to use them • capabilities of the developer and availability of technology and facilities – are the facilities available if being used on site and also are they available to all learners if used remotely (current problem my learners have are the facility of computers and internet access at home, printer etc), the teacher/practitioner needs to be familiar with the sites/equipment being used, licensing and copyright • strengths and limitations of technological resources – facilitation of different technological equipment especially resources available remotely • financial constraints
• range of different resources available (youtube, research availability, presentation formats e.g. power point, poster, presentation, video clips etc.) – do they meet awarding body standards, how can you monitor the resource for suitability • how you use technology within the settings/classroom – is it supervised or needed to be supervised during use, password protection on equipment, virus checkers, blocking of unsuitable material etc
Written resources used as handouts etc – does this meet the individual learner styles, do they enhance learning, do they adapt easily for learners with specific needs eg dyslexia or ESOL?
Comprehension is aided by:
• useful graphics (not just pictures)
• graphics that support, enhance, and re-explain main ideas
• graphics located near relevant text
• use of a variety of graphics and illustrations to support concepts and thought processes.
Before and after using this diverse list of resources you will benefit from obtaining feedback from the learner about the suitability of the resource, you can also gain feedback from trainers/practitioners if they have used the resources (sharing best practice with peers), and you can use guidance and recommendations from awarding bodies (eg in childcare recommendation is for the Heinemann text book linked with the course). All feedback can be covered by evaluation sheets, written, verbal, meetings and standardisation.
A number of reference documents/websites that have assisted in the creation of this document are listed below: http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/publications/effectivepracticeelearning.pdf http://se.csie.dyu.edu.tw/sunflower9823/paper/_Mapping_pedagogy_and_tools_for_effective_learning_design.pdf http://eduapps.org/
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