Over the decades of population growth, the world population already reached to billions in the 21st century. Poverty is one of the main causes of the rapid population growth. We also have to face the worst impacts of overpopulation on the environment, economics and human health. We need to clearly understand what the present situation is. We should try our best to find solutions by considering the causes and effects of overpopulation. If we cannot find common ground on how to move forward sustainably and ethically, we may see the exhaustion of natural resources and the destabilisation of our economy and society. I recommend family planning in the form of birth control to reduce population growth, together with improving technologies and economic approaches.
Over the last few decades of human population growth, the world has already surpassed several billions. Poverty is one of the main causes of the rapid population growth. Society will We also have to face the worst impacts of overpopulation on the environment, economics and human health. Solutions We should be considered try our best to find solutions by understanding considering the causes and effects of overpopulation. If we cannot find common ground cannot be reached on how to move forward sustainably and ethically, we may see the exhaustion of natural resources and the destabilisation of our economy and society. I recommend Family planning is recommended in the form of birth control to reduce population growth, together with improving technologies and economic approaches.
Table of contents
There has been a sharp increase in world population over the past decades and the planet has to support the population which is billions more than before. According to the National Research Council (2010) predicted that the world population will increase by 1 billion to 5 billion from 2007 to 2050 and the total world population will get the peak of 10 billion by 2050. The overpopulation already became a subject which cannot be ignored. Overpopulation has negative influence on environment, economy and human health. According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD, 2012), the world has under the greatest pressure of environment, food and energy shortage, irreversible change of the ecosystem. With the population of 7 billion, People also face extremely complex economic and social crises. To this end, this report aims to not only clearly understand the current situation of population but also present solutions by thinking over the causes and effects of overpopulation.
There has been a sharp increase in human population around the world population over the past decades, resulting in and the natural environment planet has to support the population which is several billions of people more than before. According to the National Research Council (2010) predicted that the world population will increase by 1 billion to 5 billion from 2007 to 2050 and the total world population will get the peak at of 10 billion by 2050. Overpopulation is already became a subject which cannot be ignored. Overpopulation has negative influences on environment, economy and human health.
According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD, 2012), the world has come under the greatest pressure in terms of pollution, land degradation and depletion of natural resources. environment, food and energy shortage, This can lead to irreversible change to of the environment ecosystem. With the population of 7 billion, people also face extremely complex economic and social crises. To this end, This report aims to not only clearly understand the current situation of overpopulation but also present possible solutions to this problem. by thinking over the causes and effects of overpopulation.
“According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD, 2012), the world has come under the greatest pressure” in terms of environment, food and energy shortage, irreversible change of the ecosystem. Actually you are presenting several different ideas not related to the opening statement. You followed by listing environment (which is good but is too broad a term) then listed “food” and “energy”. These are separate ideas and are human needs. It is actually the need to clear land for food and extraction of resources for energy that the environment is coming under pressure. Perhaps list things like pollution, land degradation and depletion of natural resources (plus anything else you can think off). These issues can lead to irreversible change to the environment
2. Poverty cause rapid population growth
After about two centuries, human population has increased like never before. There are plenty of contributors act on this extremely complex issue. But there is no doubt that, the poverty plays a key role in this problem. Poverty is significantly related to high birth rate, which link to overpopulation in many poor nations. Because of the heavy financial burden, many poor families need more children to help them earn money or provide the labour supply. Sharif (2007) sates that children be look as a source of current income for the poor family, some children even begin to work to support their family as early as six year, this one of the reason why parents want more children in their family. He goes on to say that due to without organized social security in some poverty nations, parents rely on their children to support them during their old age and they believe number of children is higher means the probability of getting supported is greater. Furthermore, poverty always means shortage of food, fuel and shelter which lead to high infant mortality rates and parents have to raise more children to ensure they have enough of their descendants survive(“Poverty and overpopulation go hand-in-hand”, 1994). Faced with poverty, poor family are compelled to have more children to help them with their income and provide them life-support when they becoming old which result in the high birth rate in poverty-stricken areas and ultimately lead to world population growth.
3. The impact of overpopulation
With the heavy burden of 7 billion people, the earth has to suffering a serious of problems. From the shortage of nature resources to high level of unemployment, the rapid increase of population severely effect on the environment, the economy and people.
3.1 The effect in environment
“At the beginning of the twenty-first century, society is becoming increasingly concerned with the global issues of climate change” (IPCC, 2007). Increasing world population hand in hand with the increasing demand for agriculture products and nature resources, which also bring serious damage to environment such us climate change, water and air pollution, loss of biodiversity and decrease in primary forest area. In the book Davis (2007) shows that the shortage of food is the emergency problem of population explosion, since the number of population strained the carrying capacity of the agricultural, food prices increase and farmer had to reclaim more and more marginal land. In spite of our planet suffering from over-grazing and over-reclamation, the increasing food supply still cannot meet the needs of increasing food population. Tietenberg (2007) points out that the primary source of environment degradation is population growth.
He goes on to explain that in order to supply more fuel energy and additional farmland to meet the increasing demand of the expanding population, vast tracts of forest are consistently decrease and most of land become highly erodible. Mckee (2003) explains the relationship between human population growth and the decline of biodiversity. She also notes that because of expanding human population, the habitat of other species are becoming more and more less and finally force them walk into extinct, people leave them few chance to survive as they continue to increase 2000,000 people every day in a limited space. Because of people put their increasing demanding first and ignore the balance of ecological system, it is already caused the irreversible damage for nature environment. If they cannot realize the serious of the problem, they will finally face the ecosystem collapse.
3.2 The effect in economic
As everyone knows, world population growth has obviously negative effect on environment. But few people can realise that the population growth also is a big stumbling block for our economic development. Firstly, overpopulation will cause rising unemployment. More and more people means the gap between labor supply and demand becoming bigger and bigger. Secondly, overpopulation results in the growing gap between rich and poor. In the book Tietenberg states that, population growth will cut down per capita income, because increased people means reduces the welfare level of the average citizen. He also explains that poor family tends to own more children, it will increase their cost and make a depressing effect on their income, the result is increase their poverty and economic inequality. Finally, overpopulation will lead to the old age crisis.
Due to the rapidly population grow in 20 century, the world will enter into aging society in 21 century and our economy will face the challenge of population ageing. According to the Government Actuary’s Department (2005) there will expected to be 1.4 million more working adults aged 40 above than below 40 by 2020. The aging population will effect on the number of labor force available to be employed. Further Tietenberg states that a country with large aging people will force the problem of retirement effect.
3.3 The effect in humans
The effect of Overpopulation not just limited in the environment and economy, it is also already spread to people’s daily lives and work. It is impact may be long-lasting and mainly concentrate on the human health. People need more resources to use and live, they are destroying the environment to meet the increasing need. The most direct effect to human is that the Climate change and environment pollution lead to serious of diseases and has been found to increase both the incidence and the fatality rate.
“Meanwhile, in the past three decades, widening social inequities and changes in biodiversity — which alter the balance among predators, competitors, and prey that help keep pests and pathogens in check — have apparently contributed to the resurgence of infectious diseases. Global warming and wider fluctuations in weather help to spread these diseases: temperature constrains the range of microbes and vectors, and weather affects the timing and intensity of disease outbreaks” (Epstein, 2005).
On the other hand, due to the increasing need of food, farmer use a lot of chemical fertilizer to increase their production, there is concern that high concentrations of organic chemicals and toxic trace elements could be taken up by plants and reach humans through the food chain, it is will be threat to human health.
In certain contexts, poverty causes the number of people increasing sharply. The world population after two centuries of continue growth already over 7 billion which made the earth has been overwhelmed. It is bring many issues related to environment, economic and humans. In order to release the burden of shortage of food and energy, people have not only cultivated large amount of land but also resettlement valuable forest resources, the environment problems be caused by that is irreversible. Overpopulation result in negative effect on economy: rising unemployment, the excessive gap between the rich and the poor and the aging crises. Human health also threated by climate change, environment pollution and food security. After clearly understand the cause and effects of overpopulation, people need find effective methods to move forward sustainably and ethically.
What can be done to release this serious overpopulation problem? There are numerous solutions for these issues, including: Family planning in developing countries in the form of birth control to avoid unwanted pregnancy which can effectively control population growth and improve the population quality. In addition, Robinson & Ross (2007) claim that the effect of Family planning program in some countries is significant, with infant mortality declined rapidly families no longer have to own more children to guarantee their survival, which lead to lower fertility rate.
New technologies in agricultural area to increase grain output and utilize agriculture land efficiently which can help to release shortage of food and farmland. In the long term, it is also can help to promote food safety. In his book, Tietenberg agree that the big source of support for production continued to increase is technological progress.
Economic approach in the form of green tax policy to increase cost of pollution which can contribute to solve the environment problem. OECD report shows that some countries use green tax reforms to put a price on pollution and lead to polluting industries more expensive than greener alternative which can improve green growth.
Poverty and overpopulation go hand-in-hand. (1994, September 6). Calgary Herald, p. A5. Davis, D. H. (2007). Ignoring the Apocalypse : Why Planning to Prevent Environmental Catastrophe Goes Astray. westport: In Politics and the Environment. Epstein, P. R. (2005, October 6). Climate Change and Human Health. The New England Journal of Medicine, 353(14), 1433-6. Government Actuary’s Department. (2005, October 20). Projected increase of 7.2m in UK population by 2031. News Release. Retrieved from Government Actuary’s Department. ICPP. (2007). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press. Mckee, J. K. (2003, January). Sparing Nature: The Conflict Between Human Population Growth and Earth’s Biodiversity. Piscataway, USA: Rutgers University Press . National Research Council. (2010). Understanding the Changing Planet : Strategic Directions for the Geographical Sciences. Washington: National Academies Press. Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development. (2012). OECD Environmental Outlook To 2050. Washington: Brookings Institution Press. Robinson, W. C., & Ross, J. A. (2007). Three Decades of Population Policies and Programs. Washington, USA: The World Bank. Sharif, M. (2012). Poverty Reduction – An Effective Means of Population Control. Ashgate. Tietenberg, T. (2007). Environmental Economics And Policy. Boston: Pearson/Addison Wesley.
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